Here, you will find summaries, questions, answers, textbook solutions, pdf, extras etc. of (Nagaland Board) NBSE Class 11 Education Chapter 4: Educational Thinkers. These solutions, however, should be only treated as references and can be modified/changed.
The chapter introduces five influential educational thinkers – Pestalozzi, Froebel, Montessori, Tagore and Gandhi. It discusses their educational philosophies and contributions.
Pestalozzi emphasised learning through first-hand experience and introduced object lessons. He believed education should develop all faculties of the child. Froebel founded kindergartens and focused on educating young children through self-activity and play. Montessori developed child-centered methods and materials to support sensorimotor learning.
Rabindranath Tagore established an experimental school to give students freedom and promote creative self-expression. He was critical of rote learning. Gandhi proposed Basic Education to make learning relevant to everyday life. It centered around productive handicrafts and learning by doing.
The chapter highlights how these thinkers promoted child-centered, activity-based learning grounded in the child’s interests and environment. They advocated holistic development and opposed mechanical methods. Their innovative ideas and educational experiments continue to influence teaching-learning practices. For instance, Montessori schools are popular across the world. Tagore and Gandhi’s visions have shaped Indian education.
Though developed in particular contexts, the philosophies of these educators contain universal insights. They stress learning by experience rather than instruction, promoting the child’s natural curiosity and creativity. This facilitates integrated development and joyful learning. Their humanistic views emphasise education’s role in nurturing individuals and building peace. The thoughts of these eminent thinkers remain relevant in the 21st century.
Textual questions and answers
Very Short Answer Type Questions
1. What do you understand by the term Anschaung?
Answer: Anschaung is the first hand knowledge and not second hand one. Immediate, actual and genuine experience should be the foundation of knowledge. It means “knowledge should be earned.” It was Pestalozzi’s unique discovery and intuitive apprehension.
2. What is kindergarten? Who coined the term kindergarten?
Answer: Kindergarten is a German word, which means “garden of children”. It was coined by Friedrich Froebel.
3. Explain the aim of education according to Pestalozzi.
Answer: According to Pestalozzi the ultimate aim of education is unfolding of all that is enfolded in child. While expanding this aim, we can conclude that he aimed at all round, harmonious, natural and progressive development through the process of education.
4. What is the educational philosophy of Froebel?
Answer: Froebel’s philosophy for education of children was based on – Education should be according to the nature and needs of the child, Atmosphere of freedom of the child, Playground for kids in free natural atmosphere, Natural and spontaneous activities for the child.
5. What is ‘Montessori System’?
Answer: The Montessori System of education was founded by Maria Montessori. In the Montessori System of learning, sensory discrimination is more important than reasoning and thinking. It focuses on taking care of one’s own self like hygiene, gymnastics and clay modelling and didactic apparatus was designed and used for teaching, writing, reading and arithmetic for the children
6. What system of education was proposed by Mahatma Gandhi?
Answer: The system of education proposed by Gandhiji was the “Wardha Scheme of Education”. It is also known by other names. i.e., ‘Buniyadi Shiksha” or “Nai Talim”. But most commonly it is known as Basic Education or Wardha Scheme of Education.
7. When was the Wardha Scheme of Education accepted?
Answer: In October 1937 at the All India National Education Conference held at Wardha.
8. What is Basic Education?
Answer: The term ‘Basic’ is derived from the word ‘base’ which means ‘Bottom’ or ‘Foundation’. Therefore, Basic Education is fundamental to the whole scheme of education. It is basic because minimum learning must be acquired by the average child. It is basic in the fact that it relates to the basic occupation of the human life. It is basic as it is correlated to the basic needs of the child.
9. What do you understand by ‘Earning While Learning’?
Answer: ‘Earning while Learning’ refers to the self-supporting aspect of Basic Education, where students earn through the sale proceeds of finished craft products made by them during the process of learning. This means that at the end of the period of basic education the individual should become self-reliant and self-supporting.
Short Answer Type Questions
1. Name any four educational philosophers.
Answer: Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, Friedrich Froebel, Maria Montessori, and Rabindranath Tagore.
2. Discuss two educational thoughts of Pestalozzi.
Answer: Pestalozzi propagated the importance of psychology in education. He introduced the concept of Anschaung or learning through direct experience.
3. What made Maria Montessori start the Montessori System?
Answer: After spending almost 12 hours in a day with mentally challenged children, Maria Montessori used to work hard at night making notes, tabulating, comparing, analysing about these children. This inspired her to develop the Montessori system of education.
4. Reproduce the famous quotation of Tagore on Education.
Answer: “The highest education is that which does not merely give us information but makes our life in harmony with all existence.”
5. Explain the concept “Learning by doing”.
Answer: The concept of ‘Learning by doing’ is summed up in the educational methods of basic education. It is absolutely wrong to think that true education is acquired from books alone. There are other methods and sources which are more helpful in acquiring true knowledge. The chalk talk method is also not very useful. All educationists have condemned bookish knowledge. Gandhiji believed that school must be a place for doing many things. In the basic system of education, children acquire the knowledge of the formal school subjects as a by-product of purposeful activities.
Long Answer Type Questions
1. Write a note on the early life of Froebel.
Answer: Friedrich Wilhelm August Froebel was born on 21 April 1782 in Germany. He received neither early education nor parental care and love. His early days were full of tears. He was doing odd jobs till 14. A turning point came in his life when he joined Pestalozzi’s school at Yverdum. After completing his studies he created the concept of the “kindergarten” and coined the word which soon entered the English language as well. He opened an institution for children of age group 4 to 6 years at Banhenberg. It was a new era in infant education and this new innovation made him a great educator and philosopher not only in Germany but also in the entire world.
2. What is Rabindranath Tagore’s educational philosophy?
Answer: Rabindranath Tagore’s educational philosophy include:
- Freedom is the essence of education.
- Promotion of creative-self expression.
- Direct, first-hand experiences from activities like music, fine arts, drawing, craft, etc.
- Peaceful co-existence with all living and non-living things in the environment.
- Education should take place through natural manifestation in natural environment.
- The ideal of educational institutions should bring the child’s mind in very close union with nature.
- Being an internationalist he stood for the essential unity of mankind.
- His ideals of unity of community, nation, empire and world are possible if there is no division between body and mind.
- Man is a manifestation of God the ultimate truth. It is through men that values and virtues of life are realized.
- The aim of education is to improve human race and it is possible through the individual improvement from within.
- He emphasized on spiritual and moral development along with physical and intellectual development.
- The teacher should be a true guide, guardian and strength of the child.
- The sympathy should be the watch word of the teacher.
- According to him, “One who has lost the child in himself is totally unfit to undertake the task of educating children.”
- “Positive and self-discipline” was given the new term “rational discipline” based on the response to the inner voice of conscience.
- A child should be taught and treated with love, care and attention.
3. Discuss the educational philosophy of Mahatma Gandhi.
Answer: The educational philosophy of Mahatma Gandhi include:
i. Education in Mother Tongue: Gandhiji advocated that mother tongue should not only be a subject of study but also a medium of instruction. It was his firm belief that mother tongue helps the children to express themselves efficiently and clearly. One can learn much better in one’s mother tongue.
ii. Free and Compulsory Education for all: Gandhiji wanted that education from 6-14 years of age should be free and compulsory for all children in the country.
iii. Education Should be Craft Centred: Gandhiji had a strong belief in the principle of “Learning by doing”. According to Gandhiji, highest development of personality is possible only through handicraft which is based on learning by doing.
iv. Self Supporting Education: India being a poor country cannot afford to educate millions of illiterate people residing in the country. Therefore, he suggested that education should be self-supporting. It was his belief that handicraft will help in developing the personality of the child and also make education self-supporting.
v. Education Based on Non-violence: Gandhiji wanted the application of the law of non-violence in the training of the child as a good citizen of the nation as well as of the world. He wanted to create a generation which would believe in non-violence.
4. Discuss the aims of education according to Mahatma Gandhi.
Answer: Gandhiji had ultimate aims, which included knowledge of God, self-realisation, spiritualism, and oneness with God, and immediate aims, which included:
i. All round Personality Development: Gandhiji was of the view that there should be an all round development of the personality of the individual. Education should take care of physical, mental, intellectual development of individuals. It should go side by side.
ii. Preparing for Complete Living: Life is very complex. Gandhiji realised it and applied this principle to the scheme of education. This would make the child capable of coping with the complexities of life. If a child could adjust himself to his individual self, occupation and society, then he can be considered prepared for complete living.
iii. Character Building: According to Gandhiji, the most important aim of education was character building. He made this the base of education. Gandhiji regarded character as the expression of the whole personality including its ethical and spiritual aspects. Individual should keep the society ahead of his self interests.
iv. Training for Citizenship: Every individual lives in a society. He has to obey the rules and laws of the society. Education should impart such training to the students that they respect the rules of society, contribute for the welfare of the society with love and sense of belongings (Page 6).
v. Harmonious Development: According to Gandhiji, “Education is an all round drawing out of best in child and man, body, mind and soul”. The chief goal of Gandhiji’s education was “Harmonious development of all powers innate and acquired.
vi. Cultural Aim: Simple acquisition of knowledge is not enough for an individual. Culture is the need of every individual for refining his personality. One should have the qualities of mind which may reflect in his or her daily conduct. Culture plays an important role in developing the personality.
5. Write an essay on relevance of educational philosophy of any Indian educational philosopher.
Answer: The study of educational philosophy and methods of teaching of philosophers, thinkers, and educationists makes one feel their importance, and it seems all of them are equally convincing. We conclude that they were great thinkers in the field of education and their contribution is unique, genuine, and creative, both individually and collectively. Education was not so developed at that time, but the ideas they have presented in the field of education are relevant even today. Now the educators are trying to interpret, expand the outlook of those thinkers, educators, and philosophers.
Let’s take the example of Mahatma Gandhi, an Indian educational philosopher. His philosophy of education, often referred to as ‘Basic Education’, is still relevant today. Gandhiji was a realist and an idealist. He had an ultimate aim and he took immediate action to fulfill his aim. The ultimate aims of education according to him were the knowledge of God and spiritualism. He believed that “True education should result not in the material power but in spiritual force”. That is why he laid great stress on religious education of the students. The immediate aims were self-realisation and oneness with God.
Gandhiji advocated the method of correlation. The teaching of various subjects should be in the form of correlated knowledge. The teaching of craft should be the focus and other subjects should be related to craft. He believed that education must be given through the medium of mother tongue. Mother tongue should be the base for teaching and learning of the subjects. There should be an emphasis on activity in the field of learning and teaching. All education should be imparted through craft. The principle of Learning-by-doing should be adopted. According to Gandhiji, the most effective means of developing the character and personality of an individual is through the study of religion and morality. He emphasized on self-sacrifice, social service, Ahimsa, and Bramhacharya. These are the four essential elements of life. He wanted that every child in the school should be educated in such a way that he shows the spirit of respect for all religions and morality in his actual conduct.
The relevance of Gandhiji’s philosophy of education is evident in today’s educational practices. His emphasis on learning by doing, character building, and the importance of the mother tongue as the medium of instruction are principles that are widely accepted and practiced in the field of education today. His philosophy of education is not only relevant but instrumental in shaping the educational practices and policies in India and around the world. The principles, methods, and practices of present-day education are largely influenced by the ideas and philosophies of thinkers like Gandhiji. Their relevance will remain forever. They were the pillars of educational philosophy.
Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) Questions
1. Compare the educational philosophy of any two educators.
Answer: The educational philosophies of Pestalozzi and Froebel, for instance, have unique, genuine, and creative contributions to the field of education. Pestalozzi advocated the importance of psychology in the process of education, while Froebel and Tagore advocated the ideas of naturalistic growth and their comparison of students as plants and teacher as gardener. These philosophies are beneficial to all students and should be applied in school environments. The philosophy of each one is unique, and if a careful analysis is done, it gives us the answer to the controversy between individual aim and social aim. All of them stand for individual development of the child that culminates into social progress.
2. In what way Gandhiji’s Basic Education is helpful to fulfil the needs of Indian villages?
Answer: Gandhiji’s Basic Education is designed to be self-supporting, with the education imparted through some handicraft or industry. This education should be related to the environment of the child, with emphasis given on those subjects which concern our people, our life, our country, and physical and social environment. The teaching and learning should be in the mother tongue, instead of English. Gandhiji introduced craft as an essential part of the curriculum. Craft was not added as an additional subject but as a medium of instruction. He was of the view that, “The process of education should be imparted through some handicraft or industry.” The teaching through craft was not to produce craftsmen but to explore its educational values. This approach is particularly relevant to the needs of Indian villages, where craft skills can be directly applied to the local economy and social structure.
Additional/extra questions and answers
1. When and where was Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi born?
Answer: Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi was born in Switzerland on 12 January, 1746 at Zurich.
2. Which famous philosopher had a significant influence on Pestalozzi?
Answer: Rousseau’s method of education based on nature had a great influence on Pestalozzi.
3. What is Pestalozzi’s most famous slogan and how was it received?
Answer: Pestalozzi’s most famous slogan is “Psychologize Education.” Initially, this slogan was rejected, but later on and even today, his slogan is highly accepted, appreciated and quoted.
4. Can you explain Pestalozzi’s Naturalistic Education and how it was influenced by Rousseau?
Answer: Pestalozzi’s Naturalistic Education was greatly influenced by Rousseau’s philosophy. Rousseau proposed an education system based on the uniform laws of nature, and Pestalozzi adopted this perspective. He believed in a pedagogical method based on psychological necessity, arguing that education should aid in “the unfolding of all that is enfolded in a child.” This implies an all-round, harmonious, natural, and progressive development through the process of education.
5. What are the maxims based on Pestalozzi’s philosophy of education?
- Simple to complex
- Pupil’s Activity
- Born teacher (Not made)
6. Define Pestalozzi’s concept of ‘Anschaung’.
Answer: According to Pestalozzi, ‘Anschaung’ refers to first-hand knowledge, not second-hand knowledge. It emphasizes immediate, actual, and genuine experience as the foundation of knowledge. It means “knowledge should be earned.” This concept involves sense awareness, sense perception, or sense presentation apprehension, or immediate perception that involves fewest elements of rational insight. He believed that knowledge must be cultivated by one’s own investigation and love to have intrinsic value for an individual.
105. Discuss the significance of the contributions of the thinkers, philosophers, and educators mentioned in the context of present-day education.
Answer: The thinkers, philosophers, and educators mentioned were instrumental in laying the foundation of principles, methods, and practices of present-day education. They introduced various teaching philosophies, some focusing on the teacher as the main guide and others advocating for student-centered learning. They emphasized the importance of psychological understanding, hands-on experiences, and fostering individual growth in education. These concepts are all relevant and applied in contemporary education. Their unique contributions to the field of education are still widely recognized and respected today.
1. When was Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi born?
A. 12 February, 1746 B. 12 January, 1746 C. 12 January, 1846 D. 12 February, 1846
Answer: B. 12 January, 1746
2. Where was Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi born?
A. Geneva B. Paris C. Zurich D. Rome
Answer: C. Zurich
3. Who had a great influence on Pestalozzi’s method of education?
A. Plato B. Aristotle C. Rousseau D. Socrates
Answer: C. Rousseau
4. What was Pestalozzi’s famous slogan?
A. “Psychologize Education” B. “Psychologize Science” C. “Psychologize Knowledge” D. “Psychologize Learning”
Answer: A. “Psychologize Education”
5. What is the ultimate aim of education according to Pestalozzi?
A. Rote Learning B. Competition C. Unfolding of all that is enfolded in a child D. Exam Oriented Learning
Answer: C. Unfolding of all that is enfolded in a child
6. Pestalozzi’s philosophy of education is based on moving from:
A. Complex to Simple B. Simple to Complex C. Known to Unknown D. Unknown to Known
Answer: B. Simple to Complex
104. What was Mahatma Gandhi’s philosophy of education known as?
A. Essential Education. B. Basic Education. C. Fundamental Education. D. Core Education.
Answer: B. Basic Education.
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