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Chapter 1: Political Parties in India, SEBA Class 9 Political Science
Introduction to Chapter 1: Political Parties in India which is a part of SEBA’s class 9 Social Science (Political Science) subject: The importance of political party came into focus just after the emergence of democratic pursuit. In the monarchy, the king was the absolute ruler and his words were the laws. In the later years, monarchies became extinct in the world and the concept of democracy assumed particular importance in its place. With the dawn of democracy, the political party came into existence and it became a part and parcel of the system of democratic governance. At present, democracy and the political party are complementary to each other. Without political parties, democracy is useless. Similarly, without democracy, political parties are meaningless. A political party is a link between the ruler and the public. It brings the common people closer to the administration. The political party or the party system is found in every democratic state of the world. This party system, if one party or single party somewhere, it is bi-party ‘or multi-party somewhere else. At present in countries like China, there is a one-party system or there is only one political party which is the Communist party. On the other hand, a bi-party system is found in countries like the U.S.A. Whereas there is a multi-party system in countries like – India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, etc.
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Chapter 2: Types of Classification of Government, SEBA Class 9 Political Science
Introduction to Chapter 2: Types of Classification of Government which is a part of SEBA’s class 9 Social Science (Political Science) subject: The states and governments of the world are classified into different types. Such class division of the states is carried out on the basis of the type of character of the state. Therefore, it is said that the classification of government means the classification of the states. The ancient Greek philosopher Plato initiated the classification of the government. After Plato, it was his disciple, Aristotle who classified the government into several types. Plato and Aristotle classified the government on the basis of the number of rulers and the objectives of the government. It was named Monarchy when a single ruler ruled for the welfare of the common people, it was named Aristocracy when a few people ruled and it was known as Polity when many people ruled or it was the rule of the public. On the other hand, if the single ruler governs against the interest of the common people .it is known as Tyranny. It was known as Oligarchy when a few people ruled and it was Democracy when governed by many people. With the change of time, Monarchy and·Aristocracy lost their relevancy in due course of time. At present in most of the states in the world government is found to be. democratic in nature. In England, Nepal, Bhutan although there is king or queen they don’t rule. It is only a symbolic system to uphold the age-old traditional royal crown intact. Even today the democratic government is not found in all the states of the world. The democratic form of government which is becoming popular in present has been classified into four types namely, the Unitary, the Federal, the Parliamentary and the Presidential.
Chapter 1: Basic Concepts of Economics, SEBA Class 9 Economics
Introduction to Chapter 1: Basic Concepts of Economics which is a part of SEBA’s class 9 Social Science (Economics) subject: Economics is an essential part of social science. The study of the economic activities of an individual as a part of society is known as economics. The word ‘Economics’ has been derived from the Greek word ‘Oikonoma.’ ‘Oikos’ means ‘family’ and ‘nomos’ means ‘rules’. Therefore, economics is regarded as the rules which direct the running of a family or society. There are several reasons for the necessity of the study of economics. A few of these can be mentioned in brief. A healthy democracy requires the civic consciousness of the people. A tax-paying citizen would surely want to know how the government collects revenue, how it spends the collected revenue, what rules govern the process of expenditure, is the revenue being spent judiciously and so on. A social organiser or reformer would want to find out the reasons for widespread and abject poverty. When doing that, he will be able to understand that many of the reasons for this problem are economic in nature. As conscious customers, we would like to know the reasons for the rise in prices of essential commodities. What is globalisation? What are its merits and demerits? What is economic development? What is environmental economics? Important issues such as these are a pact of the subject matter of economics.
Chapter 2: Basic Economic Problems, SEBA Class 9 Economics
Introduction to Chapter 2: Basic Economic Problems which is a part of SEBA’s class 9 Social Science (Economics) subject: One of the burning problems faced by several countries of the world is poverty. Several economists have put forward different definitions of poverty. In a broad sense, poverty is a situation where an individual is unable to procure the basic necessities of life such as food, clothing, shelter, education and health services. The uneven distribution of wealth and income leads to an economic imbalance in a country. This results in the widening of the gap between the rich and the poor. The poor people are caught in the vicious cycle of vary, which pushes them further into the depths of poverty. The poverty line of a country creates a minimum point in the distribution line and divides a country’s population into ‘poor’ and ‘non-poor’. Though several’ definitions of India’s poverty line have been put forward, the definition based on calories is the most widely accepted. According to the definition based on calories given by the Planning Commission of India, the minimum calorie consumption should be 2400 calories in rural areas and 2100 calories in urban areas, failing which, an individual can be defined as ‘poor’. People in rural areas require more calories as they have to do more physical labour than the people in urban areas.
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