Here you will find all the questions, solutions, answers, and notes of chapter 19: Consumer Awareness of Social Science for class 10 students studying under Nagaland Board of School Education (NBSE). However, the study materials should be used only for references and nothing more. The notes can be modified/changed according to needs.
INTRODUCTION: The act of using up goods and services to satisfy wants is called ‘consumption.’ The one who consumes goods and services is called a consumer. If we look at the consumer in this way, then fundamentally all human beings are consumers.
In the modern philosophy of marketing, a consumer is supposed to be the king and business is expected to provide maximum possible satisfaction to consumers. But in reality, consumers are often exploited. In a country like India, there is a shortage of many products. A few firms enjoy monopoly powers in the market place. A large majority of consumers are ignorant and illiterate and do not know their rights. They are poor and there is a lack of unity among them. Due to all these reasons, consumers are often deprived of their rights. They are often exploited through misleading advertisements, poor quality goods, fractional weights and measures, overcharging etc. Thus, consumer awareness is very necessary to avoid exploitation.
I. Multiple Choice Questions
1. The agencies which look into the complaints of the consumers are popularly called:
Answer: (a) consumer courts
2. The organisation which helps guide the consumers on how to file cases in the consumer courts is popularly called :
Answer: (c) consumer forums
3. The Act which was enacted to protect the consumers :
Answer: (c) consumer protection Act
4. When was the Consumer Welfare Fund created in India?
Answer: (d) 1992
5. World Consumer Rights Day is observed on
Answer: (a) March 15
II. Very Short Answer Questions
1. Who is a consumer?
Answer: The one who consumes goods and services is called a consumer.
2. What is meant by adulteration?
Answer: Mixing other matter of inferior or harmful quality with food or drink intended to be sold is called adulteration.
3. Write the full form of COPRA.
Answer: Consumer Protection Act.
4. What is ‘Consumers International’?
Answer: “Consumers International” is an international body of consumer movement created under the banner of the United Nations.
5. What is MRP?
Answer: Maximum retail price is the highest price that can be charged for a product sold.
III. Short Answer Questions
1. State the meaning of ‘Right to be informed’.
Answer: Right to be informed mean that consumers have the right to be informed about the particulars of goods and services that they purchase.
2. Name the three consumer protection measures.
Answer: The three consumer protection measures are:
(i) Legislative measures.
(ii) Administrative measures.
(iii) Technical measures.
3. Give the classification of consumers on the basis of the nature of consumption.
Answer: On the basis of the nature of consumption, consumers are classified as, direct consumers, consumers by exchanging products and modern consumers.
4. What is meant by ‘under weighing’?
Answer: Under weighing means that the goods being sold in the market are sometimes not measured or weighed correctly. Shopkeepers weigh or measure less than what they should.
5. How ignorance of consumer results in consumer exploitation?
Answer: Consumers generally are ignorant about different aspects of the products namely price, quality, composition, conditions of use, terms of purchase etc. Hence, they are liable to make wrong choice.
IV. Long Answer Questions
1. What is the Consumer Forum? Describe any three features of Consumer Forum.
Answer: The consumer movement in India has led to the formation of various organisations locally known as Consumer Forums or Consumer Protection Councils.
Three features of Consumer Forum are:
I. They guide consumers on how to file cases in the consumer court.
II. On many occasions, they also represent individual consumers in consumer courts.
III. These voluntary organisations also receive financial support from the government for creating awareness among the people.
2. Write a brief note on ‘Consumer Movement’.
Answer: The consumer movement in India has led to the formation of various organisations locally known as Consumer Forums or Consumer Protection Councils. The consumer movement in India has made some progress in terms of numbers of organised groups. At present, there are more than 700 consumer groups in the country, but only about 20-25 are well organised and recognised for their activities. Consumer Welfare Fund was created in 1992 with the objective of providing financial assistance to promote and protect the welfare of the consumer, create consumer awareness and strengthen consumer movement in India, especially in rural areas.
3. What administrative measures are adopted by the Government for consumer protection?
Answer: Apart from ensuring food security to the poor, the need for PDS was felt to control the market forces of demand and supply and to prevent hoarding and black marketing. Under this system, the government procures food grains and other essential items at predetermined prices. The prices of agricultural commodities are determined by the Agricultural Costs and Prices Commission. Then these stored items are distributed among the poor consumers at a reasonable price. The PDS is maintained through the introduction of the rationing system. There is, at present, a network of about 4.7 lakh fair price shops in our country.
4. What is the rationale behind the enactment of Consumer Protection Act, 1986 (COPRA)?
Answer: The government enacted a law called the Consumer Protection Act in 1986 (popularly known as COPRA). The Act provides for the establishment of Consumer Disputes Redressal Agencies at district, state and national levels. At the district level, it is called District Consumer Forum, at the state level, it is called State Consumer Commission, while at the national level, National Consumer Commission. These courts are popularly known as Consumer Courts which look into the grievances and complaints of the consumers. Thus, the Act has enabled us as consumers to have the right to represent in the consumer courts.
5. Explain the duties of consumers while purchasing the goods.
Answer: The duties of consumers while purchasing the goods are:
(i) Consumers should look at the quality of the products as well as the guarantee of the goods and services. They should preferably purchase quality marked products such as ISI, Agmark or Hallmark.
(ii) Consumers should insist for a cash memo for the items purchased, wherever possible.
(iii) Consumers should form consumer organisations.
(iv) Consumers must make a complaint about their genuine grievances even if the value of the product is small.
(v) Consumers must know about their rights properly and also must exercise them.
6. What are the various factors causing consumer exploitation?
Answer: The following are the major factors that cause the exploitation of the consumers :
(i) Consumers generally are ignorant about different aspects of the products namely price, quality, composition, conditions of use, terms of purchase etc. Hence, they are liable to make the wrong choice.
(ii) Consumers are exploited when goods and services are not available in the market in the required quantity or numbers. This gives rise to black marketing.
(iii) Markets do not work in a fair manner when producers are few and powerful. In such cases, the sellers have an upper hand in fixing the price.
7. Explain the various rights of consumers.
Answer: The various rights of consumers are:
(i) Right to Safety: The consumers have the right to be protected against the marketing of goods and services which are harmful to life and property. For example, pressure cookers have a safety valve which, if defective, can cause a serious accident.
(ii) Right to be Informed: Consumers have the right to be informed about the particulars of goods and services that they purchase.
(iii) Right to Choose .’ Consumers have the right to choose a commodity or service at competitive Price.
(iv) Right to be Heard: The consumers should be heard at appropriate forums regarding their complaints. They have the right to seek redressal against their exploitation.
(v) Right to Consumer Education: This includes knowledge/information about goods and issues relating to consumer welfare.
8. How does the Government protect the interests of the consumers?
Answer: In order to protect the interest of the consumers, the government undertake the following three measures :
(i) Legislative measures: The government enacted a law called the Consumer Protection Act in 1986 (popularly known as COPRA). The Act provides for the establishment of Consumer Disputes Redressal Agencies at district, state and national levels.
(ii) Administrative measures: Apart from ensuring food security to the poor, the need for PDS was felt to control the market forces of demand and supply and to prevent hoarding and black marketing. Under this system, the government procures food grains and other essential items at predetermined prices.
(iii) Technical measures: Another important measure undertaken by the government for consumer protection is the setting up of institutions for fixing up the standards for products. Indian Standards Institution (ISI) has the responsibilities of laying down the standards for industrial and consumer products.
9. How does the exploitation of consumers take place in the market? Explain with the help of any five facts.
Answer: Exploitation takes various forms. Some common forms of exploitation are given below:
(i) Underweighing and Under- Measurements: The goods being sold in the market are sometimes not measured or weighed correctly. Shopkeepers weigh or measure less than what they should.
(ii) Sub-Standard Quality: The goods sold are sometimes of sub-standard quality. For example, selling of medicines beyond their expiry dates, the supply of defective home appliances etc.
(iii) High Prices: Traders charge high prices by adding charges that were not mentioned before.
(iv) Duplicate Articles: It has also been found that traders, in the name of genuine parts or goods, sell duplicate items.
(v) Adulteration: Traders are found to be involved in adulteration. In order to earn higher profits, adulteration is made in costly items like edible oils, spices etc.