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- Exercise/textual questions and answers
- Extra/additional questions and answers
- Extra/additional MCQs
Mahatma Gandhi, often referred to as the “Father of the Indian Nation,” played a pivotal role in India’s struggle for independence. Born in 1869 in Porbandar, Gujarat, Gandhi grew up in a deeply religious household, which laid the foundation for his spiritual beliefs. His ideologies were influenced by Gopal Krishna Gokhale, Jainism, the Bible, the Bhagavad Gita, David Thoreau, and Leo Tolstoy. Gandhi’s commitment to truth, non-violence, and Satyagraha as a means of political change set him apart as a leader. He advocated for democracy, upliftment of the marginalized Harijans, social reforms, and Hindu-Muslim unity. A proponent of Swadeshi, Gandhi emphasized the importance of using indigenous products, promoting Khadi, and using the charkha as a symbol of self-reliance. His unwavering dedication to these principles and his ability to mobilize the masses made him an instrumental figure in India’s fight for freedom.
Exercise/textual questions and answers
I. Very Short Answer Questions
1. Write the name of Satyagraha associated with Bihar.
Answer: The name of Satyagraha associated with Bihar is Champaran Satyagraha.
2. When did Mahatama Gandhi return from South Africa?
Answer: Mahatma Gandhi returned from South Africa in the year 1915.
3. Who formed ‘Swaraj Party’?
Answer: The Swaraj Party was formed by C.R. Das and Pt. Moti Lal Nehru.
4. In which Congress Session was complete independence resolution passed?
Answer: The complete independence resolution was passed in the Congress’ Lahore Session held in December 1929.
5. Where did the Congress hold its Annual Session in December 1929.
Answer: The Congress held its Annual Session in December 1929 in Lahore.
6. On what date was the Independence Day observed?
Answer: The Independence Day was observed on January 26, 1930.
II. Multiple Choice Questions
(i) Who founded the Swarajist Party?
Answer: (iii) Both of them
(ii) In which year did Mahatma Gandhi return from South Africa?
Answer: (i) 1915
(iii) Champaran Movement was begun by:
Answer: (i) Peasant of Champaran
(iv) ‘Bardoli Movement’ belonged to:
Answer: (i) Peasant
(v) In which session was ‘Purna Swaraj’ accepted as congress goal?
Answer: (i) 1929 Lahore
(vi) Kheda is situated in which state:
Answer: (iii) Gujarat
(vii) Who is regarded as the father of the Indian Nation:
Answer: (i) Mahatma Gandhi
III. Short Answer Type Questions-I
1. What did Bhagvad Gita teach Gandhiji?
Answer: Bhagavad Gita taught Gandhiji to render selfless service.
2. What was the influence of David Thoreau on Gandhiji?
Answer: From David Thoreau, Gandhiji borrowed the idea of civil disobedience.
3. What were the achievements of Gandhiji in South Africa?
Answer: Gandhiji’s achievements in South Africa include taking leadership of the movement for removing the restrictions on Indians, establishing the Indian National Congress in 1894, organizing a movement against the humiliating law requiring Indians to carry identity cards, and achieving the repeal of most of the repressive Acts through non-violent disobedience. His voluntary sufferings and policy of non-violence and civil disobedience forced the South African Government to repeal most of the humiliating Acts in 1914.
4. Why did Gandhiji establish Sabarmati Ashram near Ahmedabad in 1915?
Answer: Gandhiji established the Sabarmati Ashram near Ahmedabad in 1915 to try out the methods of the simple collective life that he had begun in South Africa without restrictions of class, creed, or caste.
8. What was Rowlatt Act?
Answer: The Rowlatt Act was a legislation passed by the British Government in 1919 on the recommendation of a committee headed by Mr. Justice Rowlatt. The purpose of the Rowlatt Act was to suppress the revolutionary movement in India after the end of World War I. The Act empowered the government to arrest and try political leaders by special tribunals set up under this Act. The Act allowed the government to arrest any person without giving any reason, search any place without a warrant, and imprison anyone without trial. The judges were empowered to try political cases without a jury.
9. What was the impact of Jallianwala Bagh massacre on Indian National Movement?
Answer: The impact of Jallianwala Bagh massacre on Indian National Movement were:
- A wave of horror and anger swept the country from one end to the other.
- Rabindranath Tagore surrendered his title ‘Sir’ as a measure of protest.
- Gandhiji lost his faith in the professions of goodwill of the British Government.
- The Jallianwala Bagh Tragedy and the declaration of Martial Law thereafter widened the gulf between the government and the national leaders.
- The people were not frightened into submission. On the contrary, their determination to fight against the alien rule became stronger.
10. Why did Mahatma Gandhi stop Non-Cooperation Movement?
Answer: Mahatma Gandhi stopped the Non-Cooperation Movement because an angry mob had attacked and burnt a police station at Chauri Chaura, a village in the Gorakhpur district of U.P. in which 22 policemen were killed. Gandhiji took a serious view of this incident and announced that the Indian people were not yet ready to wage a non-violent struggle.
IV. Short Answer Type Questions-II
1. How was Mahatma Gandhi perceived by the peasants?
Answer: Mahatma Gandhi was perceived positively by the peasants. He started the Champaran Satyagraha in 1917 to help the poor peasants who were exploited by European indigo planters. He defied British orders and ultimately succeeded in improving the condition of the peasants. This was Gandhi’s first attempt at civil disobedience and it was successful. Gandhi’s philosophy of life aimed to bring a transformation in human society by substituting violence or coercion with self-suffering love. He stressed peace, modesty, gentleness, philanthropy, and a sense of devout respect for the religious views of others.
2. What led Gandhiji to resume Civil Disobedience Movement in 1932?
Answer: The British Government had arrested Gandhiji and other Congress leaders and had suppressed the movement. The government had also introduced new repressive measures such as the Public Safety Bill and the Criminal Law Amendment Act. In 1931, Gandhiji had made a pact with Lord Irwin, the Viceroy of India, to end the movement in exchange for the release of political prisoners and a promise to hold a Round Table Conference on Indian constitutional reform. However, the British Government did not keep its promises and the Round Table Conference failed to produce any results. Therefore, Gandhiji decided to resume the movement in 1932 to protest against the government’s actions and to demand independence for India.
5. What was Communal Award?
Answer: The Communal Award was a scheme of minority representation announced by the British Prime Minister Ramsay Macdonald. It gave separate representation to Indian Christians, Europeans, Zamindars, Universities, Merchants Industrialists, Women, etc. Separate constituencies were to be framed to give representation to these groups, and separate seats were reserved for them. It also provided separate seats for untouchables and separated the Scheduled Castes from the Hindus. The Hindus were also given representation in the North-Western Frontier Province where they were in the minority. The Sikhs in the Punjab and the Europeans in Bengal were given more seats in proportion to their population.
6. Why are newspapers an important source of the study of the national movement?
Answer: Newspapers are an important source of the study of the national movement because:
- They provide a contemporary record of events and opinions.
- They reflect the views and attitudes of different sections of society.
- They were used by the leaders of the national movement to spread their ideas and mobilize public opinion.
- They were used to report on important events such as protests, meetings, and speeches.
- They were used to express dissent and criticize government policies.
- They were used to create a sense of national identity and unity.
7. Write a note on Second Round Table Conference.
Answer: The Second Round Table Conference was held in September AD 1931 in London. Mahatma Gandhi attended the conference as the sole representative of the Congress. The Congress agreed to suspend the civil disobedience movement and take part in the conference, while the British Government refused to accept the basic demand for freedom on the basis of immediate grant of Dominion status. Mahatma Gandhi demanded the grant of dominion status at once and made it clear that framing a constitution should have precedence over the communal problem. The conference broke down and Mahatma Gandhi returned to India.
8. Why was the Charkha chosen as a symbol of nationalism?
Answer: The Charkha was chosen as a symbol of nationalism because of its association with the Swadeshi movement, which aimed at promoting Indian-made goods and boycotting British goods. The Charkha was seen as a symbol of self-reliance and self-sufficiency, which were important values for the nationalist movement. Additionally, the Charkha was a tool used by Mahatma Gandhi himself, who saw it as a way to promote economic independence and empower rural communities.
V. Long Answer Type Questions-I
1. Discuss the political ideas of Gandhiji.
Answer: Mahatma Gandhi was a great political leader who played a significant role in India’s struggle for independence from British colonial rule. His political ideas were based on his firm belief in truth, non-violence, democracy, and social justice. Below are some of the key political ideas of Gandhiji:
Truth and Non-violence: Gandhiji firmly believed in the power of truth and non-violence. He believed that non-violence was the guiding principle of mankind and that it was the creed of the brave and not of the cowards. According to him, “Truth is God,” and the nearest approach to truth is through love and non-violence. He practiced and preached non-violence throughout his life and used it as a tool to achieve political aims.
Satyagraha: Gandhiji made use of Satyagraha to face evil and achieve political aims. Satyagraha means self-suffering and not to hurt the opponent. It brings about a change in the heart of the opponent and awakens his soul. Gandhiji describes the various kinds of Satyagraha Movement with his philosophy.
Ends and Means: Gandhiji believed that there is a close relationship between ends and means. As the end, so the means; as the tree so the fruit. He considered purity of man necessary to achieve political ends. He wanted to make political life clean and believed that the means used to achieve political aims should be just and ethical.
Belief in Democracy: Gandhiji was in favour of representative democracy. He wanted the state authority to be based on the consent of the people. He believed that the people of India should have the right to choose their own leaders and to participate in the decision-making process.
Upliftment of Harijans and Social Reforms: Gandhiji was severely opposed to the practice of untouchability. He worked untiringly for the upliftment of the harijans. He lived among them in their colonies, sat and ate with them. Gandhiji was also a great social reformer. He preached against drinking and exploitation of women, dowry system and child marriage.
Swadeshi, Khadi and Charkha: Mahatma Gandhi preached and practised Swadeshi. He asked his followers to wear Khadi. He made the charkha a symbol of national movement. He led the movement for the boycott of foreign goods. His followers picketed the shops selling foreign-made goods.
Hindu-Muslim unity: Gandhiji believed in the brotherhood of mankind. He loved all. He firmly believed that Hindu-Muslim unity was essential for the success of the national movement. Both the communities should work shoulder to shoulder to bring peace and prosperity to the country.
2. How was non-cooperation a form of protest?
Answer: The Non-Cooperation Movement was a form of protest in which the common people of India were called upon to withdraw their cooperation from the British Government. The movement aimed to create a spirit of self-confidence and self-reliance among the people and to bring them into the political struggle for the country’s freedom. The movement was launched by Mahatma Gandhi in 192 and it was the first mass-based political movement in India.
The movement involved the boycott of British goods, institutions, and services. The people were urged to give up their titles, resign from government jobs, and refuse to pay taxes. The movement also involved the surrender of titles and honors conferred by the British Government.
The movement was successful in mobilizing the masses and creating a sense of national unity. It also brought the common people into the political struggle for the country’s freedom. However, the movement was suspended in 1922 after an incident at Chauri Chaura, in which an angry mob attacked and burnt a police station, resulting in the death of 22 policemen.
Gandhiji took a serious view of this incident and announced that the Indian people were not yet ready to wage a non-violent struggle. The suspension of the Non-Cooperation Movement greatly shocked the younger leaders of the Congress like Subhash Chandra Bose and Jawaharlal Nehru.
Thus, the Non-Cooperation Movement was a form of protest in which the common people of India were called upon to withdraw their cooperation from the British Government. The movement aimed to create a spirit of self-confidence and self-reliance among the people and to bring them into the political struggle for the country’s freedom. However, the movement was suspended after the incident at Chauri Chaura.
3. Write about the movement that Gandhiji started in South Africa.
Answer: Gandhiji’s political career in South Africa began in 1893, when he arrived in the country and was soon confronted with the bitter reality of the humiliating treatment to which Indians were subjected. This experience had a profound influence on Gandhiji’s career, and for the next 20 years, he stayed in South Africa, taking the leadership of the movement for removing the restrictions on the Indians from which they were suffering.
One of the most significant incidents that shaped Gandhiji’s career in South Africa was his removal from a first-class railway compartment at Maritzburg, along with his luggage, by a white man and the local police. This incident was the result of the fact that Indians, regardless of their wealth or social status, were not allowed to travel first class along with white passengers. This incident led Gandhiji to organize a mighty movement against the humiliating law.
Gandhiji’s movement was based on the policy of non-violence and civil disobedience. Under his leadership, the Indians refused to register themselves and repeatedly crossed the Transvaal frontier in violation of the law. Gandhiji himself, along with 200 Indians, was imprisoned. The voluntary sufferings of these agitations forced the South African Government to repeal most of the humiliating Acts in 1914.
During his stay in South Africa, Gandhiji established the Indian National Congress in 1894. He, his wife, and his companions suffered arrests and imprisonments many times, and he was even assaulted on one occasion by the Europeans who hated him. Despite these challenges, Gandhiji’s idea of non-violent disobedience had its first great success in South Africa.
Gandhiji’s movement in South Africa was significant not only because it led to the repeal of most of the humiliating Acts but also because it established Gandhiji as a leader and shaped his philosophy of non-violence and civil disobedience. These ideas would later become central to his political career in India and inspire the Indian National Movement towards independence.
4. Analyse the circumstances favouring the adoption of Non-Cooperation movement by Gandhiji.
Answer: There were several circumstances that favoured the adoption of the Non-Cooperation Movement by Gandhiji.
Firstly, the movement was a response to the Rowlatt Act of 1919, which had extended the repressive measures of the wartime Defence of India Act. The Act had curtailed civil liberties and allowed for detention without trial, which was deeply resented by Indians. The Non-Cooperation Movement was seen as a way to protest against these repressive measures and demand greater freedom.
Secondly, the Khilafat Movement, which aimed to protect the political and religious rights of Muslims in India, had gained momentum in the aftermath of World War I. This movement had also called for non-cooperation with the British government, and Gandhiji saw an opportunity to unite Hindus and Muslims in a common cause.
Thirdly, the Non-Cooperation Movement was also a response to the economic hardships faced by Indians. The British government had imposed high taxes on Indian goods and had also restricted Indian industries, leading to widespread poverty and unemployment. The movement aimed to boycott British goods and promote Indian industries, thereby improving the economic conditions of Indians.
Finally, the Non-Cooperation Movement was also a way for Gandhiji to mobilize the masses and involve them in the struggle for freedom. The movement aimed to bring together people from all walks of life, including peasants, workers, and students, and create a sense of national unity and pride.
8. What do private letters and autobiographies tell us about an individual? How are those sources different from official accounts.
Answer: Private letters and autobiographies offer us a unique, personal viewpoint on an individual’s thoughts, emotions, and experiences. These sources provide glimpses into the motivations, beliefs, and values of a person that might not be evident in official records. In Gandhi’s case, his private correspondence and autobiographical writings expose his internal struggles, uncertainties, and personal evolution as both a leader and an individual.
These types of documents differ from official accounts because they are not specifically created for public viewing and often exhibit a more open and sincere tone. In contrast, official records typically serve a particular purpose, such as promoting propaganda or documenting history, and can be more polished or biased as a result.
Moreover, private letters and autobiographies tend to be written in a casual style and might contain personal stories and contemplations that are absent in official accounts. They also offer a more intricate understanding of an individual’s personality traits, as well as their connections with other people.
In conclusion, private letters and autobiographies hold significant value for historians and researchers aiming to comprehend an individual’s life and historical contributions. They present a more personal and intimate viewpoint that may not be fully captured in official accounts.
9. Why were the dialogues at the Round Table Conferences inconclusive?
Answer: The dialogues at the Round Table Conferences were inconclusive due to several reasons:
Absence of Congress representation: In the First Round Table Conference, the Indian National Congress, the largest political party in India at the time, boycotted the conference. Without their representation, any conclusions reached at the conference would not have been accepted by the majority of the Indian population.
Conflicting demands and interests: The Indian leaders attending the conferences had different political agendas, and their demands often conflicted with one another. The communal leaders sought separate electorates and safeguards for their communities, while the Congress, represented by Mahatma Gandhi in the Second Round Table Conference, demanded immediate dominion status for India and considered the framing of a constitution to be more important than addressing communal issues.
British government’s unwillingness: The British government was unwilling to accept the Indian leaders’ demands for immediate dominion status and greater autonomy. They wanted to maintain control over the Indian administration and were not prepared to make significant concessions.
Communal Award controversy: The Communal Award announced by British Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald further complicated matters by providing separate representation for various communities, including the Scheduled Castes. This decision was strongly opposed by Mahatma Gandhi, and it led to the Poona Pact between Gandhi and Dr. B.R. Ambedkar. The controversy weakened the unity among Indian leaders and further hindered the progress of the conferences.
Lack of Congress participation in the Third Round Table Conference: The Congress did not participate in the Third Round Table Conference, leading to discussions that primarily involved loyalists to the British Government and communal leaders. The conference only confirmed the decisions taken in the previous conferences, without making any substantial progress towards a mutually acceptable solution.
Therefore, the inconclusive nature of the dialogues at the Round Table Conferences can be attributed to the lack of consensus among Indian leaders, the absence of key political parties like the Congress, the British government’s reluctance to grant significant concessions, and the controversies surrounding communal representation.
VI. Long Answer Type Questions-II
1. How have the different kinds of available sources helped the historians in reconstructing the political career of Gandhiji and the history of the national movement that was associated with it. Explain.
Answer: The different kinds of available sources have played a significant role in helping historians reconstruct the political career of Mahatma Gandhi and the history of the national movement associated with it. These sources offer a comprehensive understanding of Gandhiji’s life, his philosophies, and the impact of his actions on India’s freedom struggle. The various sources include:
Autobiographies and biographies: Gandhiji’s autobiography, “The Story of My Experiments with Truth,” provides a first-hand account of his life, beliefs, and experiences. Many biographies have also been written on his life, such as “Gandhi: His Life and Message for the World” by Louis Fischer and “Mahatma Gandhi” by Romain Rolland, providing historians with insights into his personality, motivations, and relationships.
Correspondence and speeches: Gandhiji’s vast collection of letters, speeches, and articles offer a detailed understanding of his political thought and vision for India. These primary sources help historians gauge the evolution of his ideas and the impact they had on the national movement.
Gandhiji’s own writings: Gandhiji was a prolific writer, and his works, such as “Hind Swaraj” and “The Constructive Programme,” provide historians with a deep understanding of his philosophy and his thoughts on India’s path to independence.
Newspapers and contemporary accounts: Newspapers published during Gandhiji’s time, both in English and various Indian languages, offer a glimpse into the public’s perception of Gandhiji and the national movement. London newspapers and Indian national newspapers and magazines had different accounts of events, reflecting varying opinions and worldviews.
Critiques and opposing views: Analyzing critiques from Gandhiji’s contemporaries and later scholars, such as Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, Muslim League leaders, Hindu Mahasabha leaders, and Marxist academicians, provides historians with a balanced perspective on the strengths and weaknesses of Gandhiji’s leadership and ideas.
Tributes and international recognition: Glowing tributes from world leaders like Martin Luther King Jr., Albert Einstein, and Romain Rolland, among others, help historians understand the global impact of Gandhiji’s work and the admiration he received from various quarters.
By examining these diverse sources, historians can piece together a comprehensive understanding of Mahatma Gandhi’s political career and the national movement associated with it. These sources provide insights into the impact of Gandhiji’s ideas and actions on India’s struggle for independence and the way his philosophies continue to influence the world today.
2. Gandhiji encouraged the communication of the nationalist message in the mother tongue rather than in the language of the ruler. Examine how he knitted the Non-cooperation Movement with his philosophy.
Answer: Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, fondly known as Gandhiji, played a crucial role in the Indian independence movement. His philosophy of non-violence and non-cooperation against British rule found widespread appeal among Indians. One key aspect of his strategy was to communicate the nationalist message in the mother tongue of the people rather than in the language of the ruler, English. This decision was instrumental in knitting the Non-cooperation Movement with his philosophy in several ways:
Inclusivity and accessibility: By using Indian languages, Gandhiji ensured that the nationalist message was accessible to a wide range of people, including those who did not understand or speak English. This approach created a sense of inclusivity and unity among Indians, as people from different regions, social classes, and educational backgrounds could easily understand and support the cause.
Cultural pride and identity: Promoting Indian languages over English reinforced a sense of cultural pride and identity among the people. It helped them recognize the value of their own languages and traditions, which had been undermined during British rule. By doing so, Gandhiji sought to create a strong nationalist sentiment, which was crucial for the success of the Non-cooperation Movement.
Emotional connection: Communication in the mother tongue established an emotional connection between Gandhiji and the masses. People could relate better to the ideas and values he propagated, as he expressed them in their own language. This emotional connection was critical in mobilizing the masses to participate actively in the Non-cooperation Movement.
Decentralization of power: Encouraging communication in Indian languages also contributed to the decentralization of power, as it encouraged local leaders to take up the cause in their own regions. This approach helped the Non-cooperation Movement gain momentum across the country, as local leaders were able to rally support within their communities more effectively than if they had to rely on English as the medium of communication.
Preserving and promoting indigenous knowledge: Gandhiji believed that knowledge and wisdom should be accessible to everyone, regardless of their background or education. By using Indian languages to spread the nationalist message, he helped preserve and promote indigenous knowledge, which was essential for the country’s self-reliance and intellectual growth.
5. Describe Gandhiji’s career before his entry into national movement in India.
Answer: The period of Gandhiji’s political career covering the years 1893-1914 opened with his visit to Africa. Before long, he had the bitter experience of the humiliating treatment to which Indians were then subjected in South Africa. He was travelling with a first-class ticket by railway from Durban to Pretoria. On the way at Maritzburg, a white man entered the compartment and had him thrown out of the compartment along with his luggage with the help of local police. In South Africa, Indians, however rich and respectable, were not allowed to travel first class along with white passengers.
This incident had a profound influence in shaping Gandhiji’s career. For the next 20 years, Gandhiji stayed with short breaks in South Africa where he soon took the leadership of the movement for removing the restrictions on the Indians from which they were suffering. He established the Indian National Congress in 1894. During the course of the long South African agitation, he, his wife and his companions suffered arrests and imprisonments many times. Gandhiji himself was assaulted on one occasion by the Europeans who hated him.
The Government of South Africa passed a series of repressive measures to crush the Indians. An Act was passed requiring every Indian living in Transvaal to register himself along with every member of his family. Each of them was required to carry a certificate of registration with him at all times. The Indians were required to submit themselves to the humiliation of being fingerprinted and photographed.
Gandhiji, on the advice of Gopal Krishana Gokhale, spent the next four years (1914-18) in studying the Indian situation and preparing himself and those who wanted to follow his path for Satyagraha or the application of the soul force based on truth for the removal of the social and political inequalities from which India suffered then. But he was not an inactive observer during this period. In 1915, he established the Satyagraha Ashram near Ahmedabad where a little group of men who had accepted his general principles settled. Here were tried out the methods of the simple collective life that he had begun in South Africa without restrictions of class, creed or caste.
Extra/additional questions and answers
1. When and where was Mahatma Gandhi born?
Answer: Mahatma Gandhi was born on 2nd October, 1869, at Porbandar of Kathiawar in Gujarat.
2. Who was considered as Gandhiji’s “political Guru”?
Answer: Gopal Krishna Gokhale was considered as Gandhiji’s “political Guru”.
3. What does Satyagraha mean in Gandhiji’s ideology?
Answer: In Gandhiji’s ideology, Satyagraha means self-suffering and not to hurt the opponent. It brings about a change in the heart of the opponent and awakens their soul.
4. What were some of the social reforms that Mahatma Gandhi preached against?
Answer: Gandhiji preached against drinking, exploitation of women, dowry system, and child marriage as part of his social reforms.
Q. Describe Gandhiji’s belief in democracy.
Answer: Gandhiji was in favor of representative democracy. He wanted the state authority to be based on the consent of the people. He believed that both the communities, Hindus and Muslims, should work together for the success of the national movement and to bring peace and prosperity to the country.
5. Explain the significance of Swadeshi, Khadi, and Charkha in Mahatma Gandhi’s ideology.
Answer: Mahatma Gandhi preached and practiced Swadeshi, which means using goods made in one’s own country. He asked his followers to wear Khadi, a handspun and handwoven cloth. The charkha, or spinning wheel, became a symbol of the national movement under Gandhiji’s guidance. He led the movement for the boycott of foreign goods and encouraged his followers to picket shops selling foreign-made goods.
70. How did Gandhiji’s teachings influence the Indian struggle for independence?
Answer: Gandhiji’s teachings had a significant impact on the Indian struggle for independence. His philosophy of non-violence and peaceful resistance attracted millions of Indians to join the freedom movement. He taught Indians the importance of self-reliance and self-sufficiency, which led to widespread support for the Swadeshi movement. Gandhiji’s emphasis on truth, social justice, and religious tolerance helped create a sense of unity among the diverse Indian population. Although Indians did not fully adopt Gandhian non-violence in all aspects, his teachings served as a guiding force for the independence movement, challenging the British Empire’s authority and eventually leading to India’s freedom.
1. When was Mahatma Gandhi born?
A. 1867 B. 1869 C. 1871 D. 1873
Answer: B. 1869
2. In which Indian state was Mahatma Gandhi born?
A. Maharashtra B. Karnataka C. Gujarat D. Rajasthan
Answer: C. Gujarat
3. What was the name of Mahatma Gandhi’s wife?
A. Anandi B. Kasturba C. Putli Bai D. Savitri
Answer: B. Kasturba
4. Which country did Mahatma Gandhi go to for higher education?
A. United States B. France C. Germany D. England
Answer: D. England
5. In which country did Mahatma Gandhi start a movement against the government’s atrocities?
A. India B. England C. South Africa D. United States
Answer: C. South Africa
90. What did Dr. Radhakrishnan consider Gandhiji to be?
A. A politician B. A great teacher C. A philosopher D. A religious leader
Answer: B. A great teacher
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