An Introduction to Object Oriented Programming: SEBA Class 10 Computer

An Introduction to Object Oriented Programming seba class 10 computer science
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Get answers, questions, notes, textbook solutions, extras, pdf, mcqs, for Computer Chapter 10 An Introduction to Object Oriented Programming of class 10 (HSLC/Madhyamik) for students studying under the Board of Secondary Education, Assam (SEBA). These notes/answers, however, should only be used for references and modifications/changes can be made wherever possible.


The chapter provides an introduction to Object-Oriented Programming (OOP). It discusses the concept of programming paradigms, which are sets of design principles that define program structure. It also mentions different programming paradigms, with a focus on Procedure Oriented Programming (POP) and Object-Oriented Programming (OOP).

Procedure Oriented Programming (POP) is described as a model based on the concept of calling procedures, which are computational steps to be executed. On the other hand, OOP is introduced as a paradigm that represents real-life entities. The basic unit of OOP is the object, which has attributes and methods that represent its state and behaviour, respectively. Objects are instances of classes, which are user-defined blueprints or prototypes.

There are four main features of OOP: encapsulation, abstraction, inheritance, and polymorphism. Encapsulation is the method of bundling data and methods into a single unit, like a class, to perform a specific task without revealing unnecessary details. It adds a layer of security by restricting direct access to data. Abstraction displays only essential data or information to the user, hiding the implementation details. Polymorphism allows a single function or operator to perform in different ways, depending on how it’s invoked.

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I. Short answer questions

a. What do you mean by programming paradigm?

Answer: The term paradigm means set of design principles that defines the program structure. It is an approach to programming. The programming paradigm is all about the writing style and organizing the program code in a specific way. It is a framework that defines how the programmer can conceptualize and model complex problems to be solved.

b. Define object.

Answer: Object is a basic unit of Object Oriented Programming and represents the real-life entities. An object is a thing in the real world which has certain properties and methods. It may be any place, person, bank account, bill, or any item.

c. Define class.

Answer: A class is a user-defined blueprint or prototype from which objects are created. It represents the set of properties or methods that are common to all objects of one type.

d. What is encapsulation?

Answer: Encapsulation is the process of binding data members and methods of a program together to do a specific job, without revealing unnecessary details.

e. What is data hiding?

Answer: Data hiding is the principle of preventing direct access to some of the object’s components from outside the object’s definition through information hiding and encapsulation.

f. What is polymorphism?

Answer: Polymorphism means one name multiple forms. Polymorphism refers to a single function or multi-functioning operator performing in different ways.

g. Name four object-oriented programming languages.

Answer: Java, C++, Python, C#

h. Name two procedure-oriented programming languages.

Answer: C, Pascal

i. Name the first object-oriented language.

Answer: Simula

j. What is abstraction?

Answer: Abstraction refers to displaying only essential information while hiding implementation details from users. It focuses on the key characteristics of an object.

II. Long answer questions

a. Mention four characteristics of procedure-oriented programming.

Answer: The four characteristics of procedure-oriented programming are:

  • It emphasizes on algorithm.
  • Large programs are divided into smaller programs known as functions.
  • Functions can communicate by global variable.
  • Data move freely from one function to another function.

b. Mention two advantages and two disadvantages of procedure-oriented programming

Answer: Advantages:

  • The procedural programming languages are relatively much easier to learn as a first programming language for beginners.
  • The straightforward program organization makes it an ideal choice as a general-purpose language.


  • The procedural programming is not suitable for large and complex software.
  • It is difficult to protect the data from inadvertent changes.

c. Explain four features of OOP.

Answer: The four features of object-oriented programming are:

Encapsulation: Encapsulation can be defined as the method of putting everything that is required to do the job, inside a capsule and presenting that capsule to the user. By encapsulation, all the necessary data and methods are bind together and all the necessary details are hidden to the normal user.

Inheritance: Inheritance is the process of acquiring or inheriting properties of one class to the other. The process of deriving one class from an existing class is called inheritance. 

Abstraction: It allows us to show only essential data or information to the user and hides the implementation details from the user. The concept of abstraction relates to the idea of hiding data that are not needed for presentation.

Polymorphism: Poly means many and morphs mean form. So polymorphism means one name multiple forms. Polymorphism refers to a single-function or multi-functioning operator performing in different ways. 

d. List four advantages of OOP.

Answer: Four advantages of OOP are:

  • OOP can support large-scale and complex software development projects.
  • OOP offers better data protection. In OOP, the data access permissions are tightly controlled. It allows us the code re-usability.
  • Better representation of real-world objects. The programmer can easily represent real-world objects realistically in the program code.
  • Avoids unnecessary data exposure to the user by using abstraction.

e. Differentiate between procedure-oriented programming and object-oriented programming.


Procedural ProgrammingObject Oriented Programming
Program is divided into objectsProgram is divided into functions.
Object-oriented programming provides data hiding so it is more secure.Top-down approach.
It uses access specifier.It doesn’t use access specifier.
Procedural programming does not have any proper way for hiding data so it is less secure.Object oriented programming provides data hiding so it is more secure.
Inheritance property is used.Inheritance is not allowed.
Encapsulation is used to hide the data. No data hiding.
It is difficult to represent the real world objects.It is much easier to represent the real world objects in OOP.
Adding new data and functions is not easy.Adding new data and function is easy.
Overloading is not possible.Overloading is possible.
Function is more important than data.Data is more important than function.

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