Here, you will find summaries, questions, answers, textbook solutions, pdf, extras etc. of (Nagaland Board) NBSE Class 11 Political Science Chapter 3: Citizenship. These solutions, however, should be only treated as references and can be modified/changed.
Citizenship, as defined by T.H. Marshall, is “full and equal membership of a community,” where ‘community’ refers to a ‘political community’, i.e., a State. This legal status bestows upon individuals “equal rights and duties, liberties and constraints, powers and responsibilities.” The term ‘Citizen’ refers to a person “who is a member of some State and enjoys therein full rights, civil, political as well as socio-economic.”
In India, citizenship can be acquired by birth, descent, registration, naturalisation, and inclusion of territory. The Indian Constitution makes no distinction between natural-born citizens and naturalised citizens. In fact, naturalised citizens are eligible for all offices under the Constitution, including the offices of the President, Vice President, Prime Minister, and Governor.
However, citizenship can be lost in several ways, such as continuous residence outside the country, disloyalty and offences against the state, acquisition of another citizenship, and marriage to an alien.
The chapter also discusses the concept of Global Citizenship, which has become increasingly relevant in our interconnected world. It argues that unless states work together, they cannot overcome many problems, such as poverty, hunger, disease, and violation of human rights. This is particularly relevant for refugees or persons who have become stateless.
The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) plays a crucial role in this context, supervising the arrangements for the protection of refugees and seeking durable solutions to their difficulties. The chapter argues for the need for an International Agreement on Migration, which would bind nations to grant some basic social and legal rights to all migrants and refugees.
Textual questions and answers
A. Long answer questions
1. What is Citizenship? What does the phrase “full and equal membership of a community or State” mean?
Answer: According to T.H. Marshall, citizenship is defined as “full and equal membership of a community.” The term ‘community’ here refers to a ‘political community’, i.e., a State. Citizenship denotes a legal status of an individual, bestowing upon them “equal rights and duties, liberties and constraints, powers and responsibilities.” The term ‘Citizen’ refers to a person “who is a member of some State and enjoys therein full rights, civil, political as well as socio-economic”.
The phrase “full and equal membership of a community” denotes an ideal condition. It is a principle of Equality. Therefore, factors such as race, caste, sex, property, or educational factors should not determine the rights a citizen has. The importance of “full membership” is evident from the destiny of those who suffered from deprivation of political and civil rights. For instance, South Africa was once a racist regime where Blacks and Indians were not allowed to live in the areas occupied by the ruling White minority (about 15 per cent of the population). Today, it is a free country.
2. What are the legal provisions with regard to the acquisition of Citizenship in India?
Answer: The legal provisions with regard to the acquisition of Citizenship in India are as follows:
- A person must not be a Citizen of a State which debars Indians from becoming citizens of that country by naturalisation.
- He must renounce the Citizenship of the country to which he belonged. iii. He should have either resided in India or should have been in the governmenat service in India for one year immediately before the date of his application for naturalisation.
- During the seven years preceding the above mentioned one year he should have resided in India or should have been in the government service in India for a period not less than four years.
- He should be of good character.
- He should have an adequate knowledge of a language specified in the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution.
4. What are the arguments in favour of the concept of Global Citizens?
How can the concept of Global Citizenship help Refugees and Stateless persons?
Answer: The arguments in favour of the concept of Global Citizens are:
We live in an Interconnected World: Because of a revolution in technology (e-mail facilities, computers and aircrafts flying at supersonic speed) people and news can reach every corner of the world within no time. Since we watch accidents such as earthquakes or air crash on the television screens, we naturally develop feelings of sympathy for those who suffered. This gives us a picture of Global Society, which led Political Scientists to develop the concept of Global Citizenship.
Unless States worked together they cannot overcome many Problems: The governments are still trying to overcome many problems, such as poverty, hunger and disease. Today many international organisations are providing disaster relief and are attempting to check the spread of diseases like Bird flu or AIDS. Besides, mankind is faced with problems like violation of human rights. If work is done by several Governments co-operatively, we can better deal with the problems faced by Refugees or persons who became Stateless.
B. Short answer questions
5. What is meant by Double Nationality?
Answer: Double Nationality is a situation that may arise when two principles of citizenship are followed simultaneously, the principle of Blood Relationship and the principle of the Place of Birth. For instance, if a French couple goes to England and there a child is born to them, then the child will have double nationality. He will be a citizen of France because of his blood relationship and a citizen of England because of his place of birth.
6. How is Citizenship lost in India?
Answer: Loss of citizenship in India may happen in many ways:
Continuous Residence Outside the Country: The right to citizenship is lost by continuous residence outside the country. Period of absence from the country varies from State to State. Continuous residence outside India for a period of seven years, without expressing his intention to return, would result in the termination of Citizenship in India.
Disloyalty and Offences Against the State: Citizenship can be terminated on account of treason or disloyalty or disaffection towards the country, desertion from the army or commission of heinous crimes.
Acquisition of Another Citizenship: If a person voluntarily acquires citizenship of another country he ceases to be a citizen of the country that he belonged to earlier.
Marriage: When a woman marries an alien, she by that very fact becomes the citizen of her husband’s country.
C. Very short answer questions
7. Give two instances to show that South frica had a political system in which people were divided into racial groups and kept apart by law.
Answer: South Africa was once a racist regime. Blacks and Indians were not allowed to live in the areas occupied by the ruling White minority (about 15 per cent of the population).
8. What is the main function of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)?
Answer: The main function of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) is to supervise the arrangements for the protection of refugees. The Commissioner is responsible for seeking durable solutions to the refugees’ difficulties.
D. Multiple Choice Questions: Tick (✓) the correct answer.
9. Which of the following statements about an Alien is true?
Answer: (b) An Alien shall have protection for his person and property in the State where he resides.
10. Which of the following statements about a Naturalised Citizen in India is true?
Answer: (d) Naturalised Citizens are eligible for all offices under the Constitution.
The Sikh schoolboys in France were required not to wear turbans and wear only school uniform at schools. Were school authorities justified in giving such orders in view of the fact that a democratic country should respect cultural identity of each and every particular community?
Answer: In a democratic country, the cultural identity of each community should indeed be respected. This includes the right to express one’s cultural and religious beliefs, such as the wearing of a turban by Sikh individuals. The principle of equality suggests that no individual should be discriminated against based on their race, religion, or cultural practices.
However, it’s also important to consider the reasons behind the school authorities’ decision. If the intention was to promote unity and prevent potential discrimination or bullying within the school environment, their decision could be seen as well-intentioned, albeit controversial.
Thus, while the school authorities may have had their reasons, it’s crucial to strike a balance between maintaining order and respecting cultural diversity. In a truly democratic society, policies should be inclusive and respectful of all cultural identities.
Additional/extra questions and answers
1. Define ‘Citizenship’ as given by T.H. Marshall.
Answer: Citizenship, as defined by T.H. Marshall, is “full and equal membership of a community”. By ‘community’, he meant ‘political community’, i.e. State. It bestows upon individuals “equal rights and duties, liberties and constraints, powers and responsibilities.”
2. How does a ‘Citizen’ differ from an ‘Alien’?
Answer: A ‘Citizen’ refers to a person who is a member of a State and enjoys therein full rights, civil, political as well as socio-economic, in return for the allegiance and loyalty which he/she owes to it. On the other hand, an ‘Alien’ is a person who lives in a State where he/she does not hold citizenship. They must obey the laws of the State and have protection for their person and property, yet they remain a foreigner, not having the full rights a citizen would have.
3. Who are ‘Stateless Persons’ and what rights do they possess?
Answer: Stateless persons are individuals who are not recognized as citizens by any country. They have only those rights which aliens have in a particular state. This means they are afforded protection for their person and property in the State where they reside and must abide by the laws of the land. However, they do not enjoy the full rights, civil, political as well as socio-economic, that a citizen of the State would have.
23. Why is there a need for an International Agreement on Migration and what would be its impact?
Answer: There is a need for an International Agreement on Migration because sentiments associated with nation-states are so strong that the ideal of Global Citizenship may not be immediately realizable. Such an agreement should obligate nations to grant basic social and legal rights to all migrants and refugees. This would lead to large-scale poverty reduction and development, demonstrating the enormous potential benefits of a coordinated international approach to the challenge of migration.
1. What is the term used for a person who is not a citizen of any country?
A. Alien B. Foreigner C. Stateless Person D. Non-Citizen
Answer: C. Stateless Person
2. According to T.H. Marshall, what does ‘community’ in the context of ‘citizenship’ mean?
A. Society B. Political Community C. Nationality D. Ethnicity
Answer: B. Political Community
3. Who are considered to be ‘Aliens’?
A. Citizens of another country living in the host country B. Stateless persons C. Local residents D. Immigrants with citizenship
Answer: A. Citizens of another country living in the host country
39. Where were large numbers of Bangladeshis illegally immigrating to, upsetting the demographic character of those places?
A. Punjab, Haryana B. Kamrup, Dhubri, Goalpara, Nalbari districts of Assam C. Tamil Nadu, Kerala D. Uttar Pradesh, Bihar
Answer: B. Kamrup, Dhubri, Goalpara, Nalbari districts of Assam
40. What are stateless people often unable to do due to their status?
A. Start businesses B. Attend school C. Purchase property D. Travel abroad
Answer: C. Purchase property
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