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Education, Media and Social Change: NBSE Class 11 Sociology

Education, Media and Social Change
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Get summary, textual answers, solutions, notes, extras, PDF to NBSE Class 12 (Arts) Sociology Chapter/unit 8 Education, Media and Social Change. However, the educational materials should only be used for reference and students are encouraged to make necessary changes.

Introduction

The chapter “Education, Media and Social Change” explores the role of education and media in driving social change. It discusses how education, as defined by Emile Durkheim, is the socialization of the younger generation, aiming to maintain societal continuity and stability. However, education also acts as a dynamic force, generating new ideas and values, and transmitting them to the younger generation.

Education emerges from societal needs for unity, stability, and continuity. It fulfills these needs by transmitting the culture or way of life of a society, which includes customs, knowledge, and skills. Education trains younger generations to preserve and perpetuate this way of life, while also equipping them to develop new ideas and adapt to a changing environment.

The process of education begins in the family, with parents playing an informal role. However, as society becomes more complex, schools and other formal agencies become necessary to provide specialized skills. In a modern society, the role of the family in the process of education is restricted to primary socialization, with formal educational institutions taking up the functions of secondary socialization.

It also discusses the role of media in social change. Communication, especially through mass media, is recognized as an important factor in development and change. The transmission of new ideas through mass media can create a favorable environment for change, influencing attitudes, values, and imparting knowledge of new skills and techniques. The expansion of modern means of communication has given rise to new cultural challenges, with people realizing the significance of their own cultural identity.

Textual questions and answers

Very short answer questions

1. What is education?

Answer: According to Emile Durkheim, education is the socialization of the younger generation. 

2. What is the basic function of education?

Answer: The basic aim of education is to maintain or sustain society, to ensure continuity and stability.

3. Give the full form of SSA.

Answer: Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan.

4. What is meant by mass media?

Answer: The term ‘mass media’ means the media such as radio, television, print and films which are used to communicate to a large number of people.

5. What is meant by mass’?

Answer: The term ‘mass’ means a large number of people or a cross section of the population as against a particular class or category of people.

6. What is meant by ‘media’?

Answer: The ‘media’ are such means of communication as the press (newspapers and magazines), radio, television, films, computer networks, and so on.

7. List any two negative effects of mass-media.

Answer: Two negative effects of mass-media are:

  • It encourages escapism.
  • It leads to passivity and distracts people from serious matters of life.
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11. Give the full form of UNI. 

Answer: The full form of UNI is United News of India.

12. What do the print media mean?

Answer: Print media refers to the means of mass communication in the form of printed publications, such as newspapers and magazines.

13. Which is the oldest existing newspaper in India?

Answer: Bombay Samachar, a Gujarati daily, published from Mumbai since 1822 is the oldest existing newspaper.

14. Which is the largest terrestrial television network in the world?

Answer: Doordarshan (DD) is one of the largest terrestrial networks in the world.

15. What does the following stands for- RNI, PTI, UNI, DD, AIR, CBFC, IGNOU and FM?

Answer: 

  • RNI: RNI stands for Registrar of Newspapers for India.
  • PTI: PTI stands for Press Trust of India. 
  • UNI: UNI stands for United News of India.
  • DD: DD stands for Doordarshan.
  • AIR: AIR stands for All India Radio.
  • CBFC: CBFC stands for Central Board of Film Certification.
  • IGNOU: IGNOU stands for Indira Gandhi National Open University.
  • FM: FM stands for Frequency Modulation.
Short answer questions

1. What is the relationship between culture and education?

Answer: There is a close relationship between education and culture. Education is the process through which the culture of a society is transmitted to the younger generations. Culture is the way of life found in a society. It includes knowledge, skills, norms, values, beliefs, attitudes, and so on. These are transmitted to the younger generation through the process of education. Education also promotes the development of new skills and promotes new ideas. Therefore, education can lead to cultural change.

2. Discuss educations as an agent of social change. 

Answer: Education acts as an agent of social change. It engages itself in a much more positive action and can perform the function of an initiator of change. It inculcates in the younger generation whatever changes are desirable for rebuilding a society. Moreover, it cultivates necessary intellectual and emotional readiness to deal with challenges of change. Education is an important instrument of modernisation. Modern values in social, economic, and political spheres have to be instilled in the minds of people to achieve the goal of modernization.

3. Discuss briefly the changes brought about in the Indian education system during the British rule.

Answer: Modern education appeared in India with the establishment of the British rule. Initially, the British rulers supported traditional schools and encouraged their expansion and growth. But by the middle of 19th century, they changed their policy and decided to introduce European literature and science in India and to make English as the medium of instruction in the higher branches of learning. This policy concentrated on the education of the upper and middle classes. Consequently, about 90% of the population was illiterate even in the early part of the 20th century. The educational system, thus, not only maintained the gulf between the upper classes and the mass of the population but also increased it further.

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8. What is the cultural dimension of globalization?

Answer: The cultural dimension of globalization refers to the set of processes that interconnect individuals, groups, and communities, leading to far-reaching consequences for human beings. Under globalization, the lives of individuals and the fates of communities increasingly depend on what takes place in distant places. Transcontinental and transnational new linkages are established in cultural terms. Globalization attempts assimilation of cultural traits and thereby denies plurality. It considers the entire world as a single system, its attempts is to create a global culture. Accordingly, the loss of local culture and subculture is legitimized to give rise to a global culture.

9. What is meant by the term local culture?

Answer: The term ‘local culture’ refers to the regional cultures within a single society. These cultures, also called subcultures, have their own traditions and are distinct from each other. However, changes are taking place in these cultures in the wake of globalization, leading to significant cultural changes across the nation in the modes of consumption, style of dress, use of synthetic materials, and so on.

Essay type questions

1. Discuss the role of education in bringing about social change in India.

Answer: Education plays a dynamic role and performs the function of an initiator of social change. It generates new ideas and values, and transmits them to the younger generation. Education emerges out of the needs of society, which include the needs for unity, stability, and continuity. It fulfills these needs through the transmission of the culture or way of life of a society. This way of life consists of customs, knowledge, and skills. Education trains younger generations to preserve and to perpetuate this way of life, but it also trains people to develop new ideas and adjust to a changing environment. 

Education influences different domains of social life and acts as an agent of social change. It engages itself in a much more positive action and can perform the function of an initiator of change. It inculcates in the younger generation whatever changes are desirable for rebuilding a society. Moreover, it cultivates necessary intellectual and emotional readiness to deal with challenges of change. Education is an important instrument of modernization. Modern values in social, economic, and political spheres have to be instilled in the minds of people to achieve the goal of modernization. This task can be effectively performed by education.

2. Discuss briefly the changes brought about in the Indian education system during the British rule.

Answer: Modern education appeared in India with the establishment of the British rule. Initially, the British rulers supported traditional schools and encouraged their expansion and growth. But by the middle of the 19th century, they changed their policy and decided to introduce European literature and science in India and to make English as the medium of instruction in the higher branches of learning. This policy concentrated on the education of the upper and middle classes. Consequently, about 90% of the population was illiterate even in the early part of the 20th century. 

The education introduced during the colonial rule had several good points. It gave a fundamentally different orientation to the educational system and laid the foundation of modern education in India. Its content was liberal and modern. The teaching of several new branches of learning such as science, technology, and medicine created an environment for modernization. The structure of the educational system was developed on professional lines. It classified educational institutions into categories like primary school, high school, college, and university, a classification that is found even today.

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5. How does mass media lead to development and change in the society?

Answer: Mass media has a profound impact on culture change. It provides information to people regarding day to day events, ranging from weather conditions to local, national and international events such as politics, wars and natural disasters. The media now plays an increasing role in the socialization of the young. With the development of mass media, children come under the active influence of the media. Musicians, dancers, sports persons, actors and actresses give young people new ideas about how to behave and how to dress. Certain values, attitudes and beliefs projected through the media are also imbibed by them. Finally, the media lend a hand in maintaining cultural continuity. They play an important role in keeping cultures alive. 

However, there are scholars, educators and others who have been very critical of the consequences of the media. Some of the criticisms directed at the mass media are that it encourages escapism, leads to passivity and distracts people from serious matters of life. It subtly brainwashes people into accepting alien values and beliefs, leading to a decline in values of sharing, collaboration, and harmony, and increasing tension in society. This degradation in the realm of culture is a serious negative aspect of the phenomenon of globalization.

6. What is mass media? List five negative effects of mass media.

Answer: The term ‘mass media’ means the media such as radio, television, print, and films which are used to communicate to a large number of people. The term ‘mass’ means a large number of people or a cross-section of the population as against a particular class or category of people. The ‘media’ are such means of communication as the press (newspapers and magazines), radio, television, films, computer networks, and so on. 

Some of the criticisms directed at the mass media are the following: 

  • It encourages escapism. 
  • It leads to passivity and distracts people from serious matters of life
  • It kills individual tastes and leads to cultural homogenisation.
  • It uses female gender to sell products through advertisements. 
  • It presents a false picture of reality.

7. What is globalisation? Highlight the changes that have taken place in culture in the context of globalization.

Answer: Globalisation is a comprehensive process that goes beyond economics. An important dimension is cultural globalisation. Globalisation is a set of processes that interconnect individuals, groups, and communities. Such connections lead to far-reaching consequences for human beings. Under globalisation, the lives of individuals and the fates of communities increasingly depend on what takes place in distant places. Transcontinental and transnational new linkages are established in cultural terms. Changes are taking place in cultures of different groups and communities in the wake of globalization. 

There are significant cultural changes across the nation in the modes of consumption, style of dress, use of synthetic materials, and so on. Changes are taking place in music, cultural performances, art forms, and regional cultural traits. Market and commodity-oriented cultural forces are causing dislocation of cultural values and practices. Globalisation has increased the real as well as perceived threats to local and smaller cultural identities. The growing importance of market has converted cultural symbols into commodities. The emergence of tourism as an industry, increasing number of tourist resorts, and marketing of cultural objects are issues affecting the local communities. Such turn of events has led to the loss of meanings in cultural objects and leads to erosion of folk culture

Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) and Problem Solving Assessment (PSA)

1. Quality education is an important actor towards desirable social change. How far is the statement true in the context of Naga society?

Answer: In the context of the Naga society, quality education plays a vital role in promoting desirable social change. Education can act as a tool to transform society and imbue it with the values of equality, liberty, and fraternity. Nagaland, like any other region, has its unique social, economic, and cultural challenges, and education can help address these in several ways.

For instance, education equips individuals with critical thinking skills and the ability to understand complex social issues. It creates a more informed citizenry capable of questioning the status quo and challenging unjust practices, thus driving social change.

Additionally, Nagaland has a diverse cultural heritage, and education can promote a better understanding and appreciation of this diversity, reducing prejudices and encouraging social cohesion. It can help preserve and pass on traditional knowledge, while also allowing the younger generation to adapt and respond to modern realities.

Finally, quality education in Naga society could be instrumental in uplifting the economic status of the people. It could foster innovation and entrepreneurial spirit, thereby creating jobs and reducing poverty.

However, for education to fulfill these roles, it needs to be accessible and inclusive, addressing disparities based on social class, gender, and other factors. It also needs to be relevant, incorporating not just traditional academic knowledge, but also life skills, civic education, and an understanding of the local context.

2. Is social media contributing positively or negatively towards social change? If yes, how? If no, why?

Answer: Social media plays a dual role when it comes to contributing towards social change – it can have both positive and negative impacts.

On the positive side, social media can greatly amplify the voices of those who have traditionally been marginalized or overlooked. It allows information to be disseminated quickly and widely, promoting awareness of social issues. Movements for social change can use social media to organize, mobilize, and communicate with supporters. It also provides a platform for constructive dialogue and debate, fostering greater understanding of different perspectives.

However, on the negative side, social media can also contribute to the spread of misinformation or disinformation, which can lead to confusion, fear, or hostility. It can be used to amplify harmful stereotypes or incite violence. The anonymity or perceived distance of social media can sometimes lead to a lack of accountability for abusive or harmful behavior.

Moreover, social media algorithms often prioritize content that is sensational or polarizing, which can contribute to the creation of “echo chambers” where users are only exposed to viewpoints that align with their existing beliefs. This can deepen social divisions rather than promoting understanding and change.

Overall, the impact of social media on social change depends greatly on how it is used. It can be a powerful tool for positive change, but it also has potential risks and challenges that need to be addressed.

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