French Revolution: NBSE Class 9 Social Science answers, notes

french revolution class 9 social science
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Get notes, questions, solutions, textual answers, pdf, and extras for Chapter 1: French Revolution, which is a part of the social science class 9 syllabus for students studying under the Nagaland Board of School Education. However, these notes should be used only for references and additions/modifications should be made as per the requirements.


The French Revolution was one of the most important events in world history. It shook the foundation of mediaeval Europe and many important events that happened after the revolution in Europe in the 19th century were directly influenced by the revolution. The French Revolution began in 1789 and lasted till 1799.

There were many reasons for the revolution. One of the most important reasons was that people were unhappy with the king and how society was divided into different groups. The groups that are at the top used to bully the groups that were at the bottom. The rich would not pay taxes, but the poor were forced to pay taxes. This angered them and eventually led to a revolution. Furthermore, there were intellectuals like Voltaire, Montesquieu, and Jean Jacques Rousseau who incited the people to revolt against the king.

In this chapter, you will learn in brief how the revolution unfolded, what the causes were, and the consequences of the revolution.

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Textual questions and answers

Choose the correct answer

1. Choose the correct answer

1. Who was the king of France on eve of the Revolution?

(a) Louis XIV (b) Louis XV (c) Louis XVI (d) None of these

Answer: (c) Louis XVI

2. The law that gave a final blow to the authority of the clergy was called :

(a) Civil Constitution of the Clergy Man (b) Declaration of the Rights of Man (c) The New Constitution of 1791 (d) Tennis Court Oath

Answer: (a) Civil Constitution of the Clergy Man

3. Which emperor of France was publicly guillotined in January 1793?

(a) Louis XIV (b) Louis XV (c) Louis XVI (d) Louis XVII

Answer: (c) Louis XVI

4. There are two statements marked as Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Mark your answer as per the codes provided below:

Assertion (A): Storming of the Bastille fortress-prison marked the beginning of the French Revolution.

Reason (R): The Bastille was a symbol of democracy and liberty.

(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
(c) (A) is correct but (R) is wrong
(d) (A) is wrong but (R) is correct

Answer: (c) (A) is correct but (R) is wrong

5. Identify the painting from the options given below.

(a) Storming of the Bastille (b) Tennis Court Oath (c) French Revolution (d) Convention of 1793

Answer: (b) Tennis Court Oath

6. Arrange the following statements in sequential order based on the events that shaped the French Revolution.

I. Voting in the Estates General
II. Storming of the Bastille
III. Tennis Court Oath
IV. Reign of Terror

(a) I, II, III, IV
(b) IV, III, II, I
(c) I, III, II, IV
(d) Both (1) and (II) are correct

Answer: (c) I, III, II, IV

7. Consider the statements given below and choose the correct answer.

Statement I: Robespierre followed a policy of severe control and punishment

Statement II: Robespierre’s government issued laws placing a maximum ceiling on wages and prices.

(a) Statement (I) is correct and (II) is incorrect
(b) Statement (I) is incorrect and (II) is correct
(c) Both (1) and (II) and incorrect
(d) Both (1) and (II) are correct

Answer: (d) Both (1) and (II) are correct

Very Short Answer Type Questions

1. When did the French Revolution begin?

Answer: The French Revolution began in 1789.

2. Which dynasty ruled France at the time of the Revolution and what kind of monarchy it was?

Answer: At the time of the Revolution, France was ruled by the Bourbon dynasty, and the monarchy was absolute.

3. On what date is Bastille Day celebrated?

Answer: Bastille Day is celebrated on July 14th.

Short Answer Type Questions

1. Explain the role of the middle class in the French Revolution.

Answer: The Revolution was spearheaded by the middle class. The 18th century saw the emergence of the middle class who had earned wealth through inland and overseas trade and manufacture of goods. Apart from merchants and manufacturers, the Third Estate included professions such as lawyers, teachers, authors, and administrative officials. All of these people were educated and possessed material means. The middle class believed that no group in society should be privileged by birth; rather one’s social position must depend on merit.

2. In what way did the French Revolution mean different aims to different people?

Answer: The French Revolution of 1789 went through various stages. It had different aims for different groups.

  • The peasants wanted an end to feudalism and the cruel taxes.
  • The liberals (the middle class of France) wanted a new constitution which gave equality and freedom to all.
  • There were the extremists who wanted a republic in France and an end to the monarchy.

3. What was the importance of the Declaration of the Rights of Man?

Answer: The ideas of liberty and democratic rights were the most important legacy of the French Revolution. These spread from France to the rest of Europe, where feudal systems were abolished. The Declaration of the Rights of Man asserted the liberty of the individual. That no authority could rule over the individuals in an arbitrary manner, was the message given. The Declaration stressed that all men are to be treated as equal before the law and that humanity implied fraternity among different peoples.

Long Answer Type Questions

1. Discuss the political, economic and social causes of the French Revolution.

Answer: The political, economic and social causes of the French Revolution were:

Political causes: Before the French Revolution, France was under the Bourbon dynasty, which believed in an absolute monarchy. In the 13th century, France established a parliament comprising the clergy, nobles and the common man, but the kings had stopped consulting it since 1614. The French kings believed in the Divine Right Theory. They thought that they were only responsible to God for the way they ruled. King Louis XIV taxed the people heavily without consulting the Estates General, and the common people in France suffered great hardships. The kings (Louis XIV and XV) were Catholics and they persecuted other religious groups. The kings also had no able ministers to guide them.

Economic causes: When King Louis XVI became king at the age of 20, he found an empty treasury. Long years of war had drained the financial resources of France. Under Louis XVI, France helped the thirteen American colonies gain their independence from Britain. The war added more than a billion lives to a debt that had already risen to more than 2 billion lives. Lenders who gave the state credit now began to charge 10 percent interest on loans. To meet its regular expenses, the state was forced to increase taxes but this would not have sufficed and only the members of the Third Estate paid taxes.

Social causes: The French society was divided into three estates and yet only the Third Estate used to pay taxes. The First and Second Estates, though they enjoyed maximum privileges and ruled over the common people, didn’t pay any taxes. The Third Estate paid about 50% of their income by way of taxes and resented the unfair and oppressive taxes forced on them by the kings. The government did not care for their welfare. It was from this middle class that the main push for the revolution came. Peasants made up about 80 percent of the population, but only a small number of them owned the land they cultivated.

2. The French philosophers of the 18th century greatly influenced the people and it led to the French Revolution. Comment on this statement.

Answer: The ideas to govern the world always come from philosophers. Prior to the French Revolution, great philosophers like Voltaire, Montesquieu and above all Rousseau paved the way for the revolution.

A. Voltaire: He launched bitter attacks against the church and the state. He made fun of the nobles and the way they behaved and governed and was against absolute monarchy. Voltaire defended freedom of speech and religious tolerance. Through mockery, Voltaire exposed the evils present in the social, political and religious lives of the French people.

B. Montesquieu: Montesquieu supported constitutional monarchy in France. He wanted the power to be shared between the king, the nobles and the Third Estate. In his book The Spirit of the Laws, he propagated the theory of separating powers into three branches of government – the Legislative, the Executive and the Judiciary.

C. Jean Jacques Rousseau: In his famous book Social Contract, he explained that the king and his subjects are parties to a contract, and therefore, if the king does not rule the people according to their general will, he loses their loyalty. He said that the people have every right to overthrow the monarchy under such circumstances. Rousseau advocated Popular Sovereignty Theory. He emphasised the equality and freedom of the citizens.

3. Explain the importance of the following events on the course of the French Revolution:

(a) The storming of the Bastille.
(b) March on Versailles by the women of Paris.
(c) The passing of the Civil Constitution of the Clergy.

Answer: (a) There was a state of confusion and anarchy in the city of Paris in the first two weeks of July 1789. Protests against the high price of bread were held almost every day. Rumours spread on 14 July that the king had ordered troops to move into the city, to fire at unruly citizens. Some 7,000 men and women gathered in front of the town hall and decided to form a people’s army. A group of several hundred people stormed the fortress prison, the Bastille and killed the commander and all the seven prisoners were set free. The Bastille was hated by all as it stood for despotism. The fall of Bastille brought the masses to the forefront. To this day France celebrates July 14 as the Bastille Day.

(b) During the fourth stage of the French Revolution when the king summoned troops to frighten the Paris mob, it led to a further escalation of mob fury. Hungry women of Paris, infuriated by the price and scarcity of bread, marched on Versailles. The mob consisted of fisherwomen, market women, bourgeois housewives, and was followed by the working people of Paris. The mob forced the king and queen to give in to all their demands. The march brought to an end to the monarchy of Versailles. It forever transformed the role of women in the revolution.

(c) The clergy, the Bishops and others, were paid a salary by the state like Civil Servants by a law passed in 1790. This law was called the Civil Constitution of the Clergy. The National Assembly decided to confiscate the immense wealth of the Church to pay off the huge debt which had brought France to financial ruin. The clerics were made to take an oath of allegiance to the government. The Civil Constitution of the Clergy established that the church would be under state control, and abolished the privileges of the Church. 

4. The French Revolution led to many “isms”. Explain.

Answer: French Revolution marked the beginning, for the first time in history, of active and institutionalised mass participation in government. The revolution led to many “isms” of nationalism, liberalism, and socialism.

Nationalism: Nationalism led to the birth of many new nations in Europe, Asia, and Africa. A nation now no longer was the king’s territory or his subjects. Rather, it is now comprised of citizens.
Liberalism: The main feature of this was the emancipation of the individual from class, corporate, or governmental restraint. The Declaration of Rights of Man inspired and guided many newly independent nations to frame their constitutions based on similar principles.
Socialism: Socialism emphasises the community and its collective welfare. This was also a result of the work of Sans Culottes during the Revolution. It promoted a society designed to promote collective well-being rather than individual profit.

5. Mention the legacy of the French Revolution.

Answer: The French Revolution not only affected France but changed its entire social and political system. It also had a lasting effect on the people of Europe in the 19th century. It inspired the Germans, Italians, and Austrians to overthrow their oppressive regimes. It led to a decade of political change, and Europe saw many revolutions inspired by the French Revolution. The watchwords of the French Revolution, such as liberty, equality, and fraternity, reflected the coming of a new democratic and social order in Europe and the world. The French Revolution also inspired the struggling nations of Asia and Africa. The French Revolution opened the eyes of the world to a profound social revolution.

Extra MCQs

1. On what date do historians generally mark the beginning of the French Revolution?

A. July 4, 1776
B. July 14, 1789
C. November 9, 1799
D. August 26, 1789

Answer: B. July 14, 1789

2. Which French prison was demolished on the first day of the Revolution?

A. Conciergerie
B. Bastille
C. Temple Prison
D. Sainte-Pélagie Prison

Answer: B. Bastille

3. Which king of France heavily taxed people without consulting the Estates General?

A. Louis XIII
B. Louis XV
C. Louis XIV
D. Louis XVI

Answer: C. Louis XIV

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92. What key idea of the French Revolution emphasized individual rights and the emancipation from governmental restraint?

A. Socialism
B. Liberalism
C. Feudalism
D. Mercantilism

Answer: B. Liberalism

Extra questions and answers

1. What was the main aim of the French people at the start of the French Revolution?

Answer: To create a constitutional monarchy and reform the social, economic, and political structure of the country.

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62. What were the lasting impacts of the French Revolution on Europe and the world?

Answer: The French Revolution profoundly impacted both Europe and the broader world throughout the 19th century and beyond, catalyzing sweeping political, social, and ideological changes. It served as an inspiration for oppressed peoples across Europe—such as the Germans, Italians, and Austrians—to challenge and overthrow their own tyrannical regimes. This period saw a flurry of revolutionary activities influenced by the French example, characterized by the pursuit of the principles of liberty, equality, and fraternity. These ideals not only redefined the notion of governance and social order in Europe but also resonated deeply with nations in Asia and Africa under colonial rule. Leaders and revolutionary movements in these regions drew motivation from the revolutionary ideas emanating from France, fostering a spirit of nationalism and demand for self-governance.

The French Revolution’s most enduring legacy was its radical ideological impact. It popularized concepts of nationalism, liberalism, and socialism, which became foundational to the political landscape of the following centuries. Nationalism emerged as a powerful force, leading to the formation of new nations where citizens shared a common territory and governance. Liberalism championed individual freedoms and the limitation of governmental power, influencing numerous democratic constitutions worldwide. Lastly, socialism promoted the idea of collective welfare and the importance of community, aspects that were later integral to other significant revolutions, notably the Russian Revolution. These “isms” fundamentally shaped global political ideologies and continue to influence the course of world history.

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10 thoughts on “French Revolution: NBSE Class 9 Social Science answers, notes”

  1. Thank you very much. It was very helpful to me.
    I was searching for this answer and I finnally got this Thank you and I’ll be grateful if next time also I got the answer.

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