Get summary, textual answers, solutions, notes, extras, PDF to NBSE Class 12 (Arts) Political Science Chapter 16 “Globalisation”. However, the educational materials should only be used for reference and students are encouraged to make necessary changes.
The chapter provides a detailed analysis of the phenomenon of globalisation, its origins, and its impact on various aspects of society.
It begins by discussing the causes of globalisation, attributing it to technological advancements, the policy of economic liberalisation and privatisation, and the interconnectedness between states and peoples. It highlights how the revolution in technology and communications, along with the policy of economic liberalisation, has facilitated the free flow of goods, services, capital, and ideas across national borders.
The chapter delves into the political and economic consequences of globalisation. It discusses how globalisation has led to a reduction in the state’s welfare functions and has affected state sovereignty. However, it also notes that globalisation has reinforced the state’s military capabilities. On the economic front, the chapter discusses the role of international institutions like the World Bank, IMF, and WTO in implementing globalisation policies. It also talks about the free flow of capital and the movement of persons.
It also discusses the cultural consequences of globalisation, noting the spread of Western culture and the simultaneous existence of different cultures side by side, a phenomenon termed as ‘Cultural Heterogenisation’.
Textual questions and answers
A. Long answer questions
1. Explain the causes and circumstances leading to Globalisation.
Answer: The causes and circumstances leading to Globalisation are as follows:
Technology and Communications’ Revolution: During the last three decades dramatic changes took place in the field of technology. In this regard, we could mention these things: cheap telephone services, e-mail facilities, computers and aircrafts flying at supersonic speed. Along with commodities and Capital, ideas and cultures also have become far more mobile.
Policy of Economic Liberalisation and Privatisation: With the disintegration of Soviet Union and the end of the Communist regimes in Eastern Europe, the Socialist economy and Communist ideas suffered a serious setback. An era of democratisation and economic liberalism (free enterprise) set in. It created a free enterprise-friendly environment in all regions of the globe. One country after another opened its borders to trade and foreign investment. This gave impetus to Globalisation of markets and production. Multinational Corporations (MNCs) invested capital worldwide.
Interconnectedness between States and Peoples: Globalisation is also being driven by the fact that peoples or states were all interconnected. Health and environmental problems respect no state boundaries. Virus like SARS moves around the world in a matter of hours due to air travel. Today it is the international organisations which provide disaster relief (in the event of tsunami or earthquake), clean up polluted environment and attempt to control diseases like HIV/AIDS and Bird flu.
2. Examine the political consequences of Globalisation.
Answer: The political consequences of Globalisation are as follows:
Under the pressures of IMF and World Bank, the governments are withdrawing from many of their welfare activities. The developing countries needed aid and loans to meet their financial crisis. The IMF advanced loans and grants to these countries on the condition that they reduced subsidies on housing, education, etc. It meant that countries accepting IMF aid were forced to give up many of their welfare functions.
Despite globalisation, there has not been much decline in State’s role in international politics. Even if a state failed to prevent a civil war or to protect its citizens from anarchy, it would try to avoid other State’s intervention at all costs. Such an intervention is regarded as “an assault on national sovereignty.”
State’s capabilities as a military power have improved to a large extent. An important reason for making them more powerful is the improved technology that added to the destructive power of weapons at their disposal. Secondly, the state have now better access to information. The ‘information rich’ states may govern better than their earlier counterparts. The rulers who are well informed know much about what is happening in the country.
3. Discuss the economic consequences of Globalisation with special reference to:
(a) Its criticism
Answer: The criticism of economic consequences of Globalisation are as follows:
Globalisation Increased Misery because of State Withdrawal from Welfare Services: The poor needed the “Social Safety Nets”, i.e., state subsidies on education, housing and health to cover the ill effects of Globalisation. Unfortunately for the poor, there has been a decline in state expenditure on services, such as health and education. The poor people have to greatly suffer in Afro-Asian societies. These people are, therefore, asking “Who is benefiting from trade liberalisation”? Economic inequalities seemed to be on the increase.
Dangers of Free Trade for the Poor and Developing Nations: Globalisation favours the major developed countries, such as America or Japan or even China, because in these countries the cost of production had been lower due to many factors. The US Government gave huge subsidies to its farmers. Therefore, their farm products are much cheaper as compared to those of developing countries. How can, then, Indian farmers or farmers of other developing nations compete on equal terms with American farmers?
Neo-Colonialism: Globalisation led to Neo-colonisation, i.e., economic control over poorer nations. Economic policies of underdeveloped countries are being framed in accordance with the directions of World Bank and WTO.
Anti-Globalisation Demonstrations: Opponents of globalisation (workers, farmers, and others) have been organising massive protests and demonstrations against IMF and WTO.
(b) Its Gains or Advantages
Answer: The gains or advantages of economic consequences of Globalisation are as follows:
Economic Development and Prosperity: The benefit of globalisation is that the industrialists have no option but to compete with the global Businessmen. Competition will improve productivity. Moreover, globalisation allows consumers to enjoy a wider range of goods and services at lower costs.
Globalisation has led to Increased Interconnectedness among Peoples and Nations: Owing to an advanced Information and Communications technology, interconnectedness between persons of different nationalities has increased
It is no longer possible to reverse the Process of Globalisation: Whatever may be the drawbacks of globalisation, it is an irreversible process. To quote Bill Clinton, “it is not a policy choice, it is a fact.” Therefore, what developing nations should do is to check and control its negative effects.
4. Examine the cultural consequences of Globalisation.
Answer: The Cable TV, Internet facilities and telecommunications have brought about radical changes in human values. Since America is the most advanced capitalist society in the world, globalisation resulted in the domination of Western (especially American) Culture and American way of life over the rest of the world. From Big McDonalds to Mickey Mouse and from Jeans to Jackson, we find American customs being practised everywhere in the world. But there is no danger that cultures of some large nations would be swallowed by the USA. We regard the Indian, the Chinese and the Japanese cultures as the three greatest cultures in Asia. We have already stated in one of the previous chapters that the Jeans culture expanded, but at the same time the demand for Indian kurtas and khadi wears in USA, England and Germany also increased considerably. In brief, the fear of the local cultures being wiped out is illusory. That seems to be impossible in reality. Globalisation led to Cultural Heterogenisation in many ways. Cultural Heterogenisation means “many different types of culture existing side by side”. Along with the Fast Foods of the Western World, South Indian masala-dosa and Chinese noodles are also highly popular in the world.
5. What has been the impact of Globalisation on Indian economy? On what grounds Globalisation has been criticised both by the Left-wing and the Right-wing writers in India?
Answer: The impact of Globalisation on the Indian economy has been significant. The policy of ‘Protectionism’ in the post-Independence era and the Industrial Policy Resolution of 1956 gave the ‘State (Public) Sector’ a prominent place in the economy. However, in 1991, the government announced a New Industrial Policy, linking the Indian economy to the Global Market. The benefits of globalisation were competition improved efficiency, access to new technology, access to foreign capital, efficiency in the banking sector, and foreign capital lessened the country’s dependence on IMF and World Bank.
However, Globalisation has been criticised on several grounds by both Left-wing and Right-wing writers in India. Leftists’ criticism includes the establishment of a ‘Capitalist Economy’ where capitalists exploit workers, the attempt by some American and European firms to obtain a patent for Neem and Haldi to extract natural resources from these plants, the withdrawal of subsidised health services, cuts in education expenses and other welfare measures leading to unrest among the sick and unemployed, and new technology leading to unemployment and economic inequalities.
On the other hand, the Rightists or the right-wing writers criticised Globalisation on the grounds that it posed a threat to the economic and political sovereignty of the weaker nations. Now India’s policies are being framed in accordance with the interests and directions of WTO and Multi-national Corporations. They also argue that Western Culture degraded our social values. Foreign TV channels and growing Western tastes among Indian girls and boys are a threat to our cultural values. TV programmers have even promoted the Valentine Day as the country’s national festival.
B. Short answer questions
6. What is meant by Globalisation?
Answer: Globalisation is a multi-dimensional idea. It has many dimensions: economic, political and culture. By ‘Globalisation’ we mean “free flow of goods, services, peoples, capital and cultures across national borders.” There are thus these kinds of ‘flows’ or movements from one place to another: (i) Free flow of goods between various countries, (ii) Free flow of services and persons between nations, (iii) Flow of capital between nation-states, i.e., the entrepreneurs of any country may invest their capital in any of the countries, and (iv) enabling ideas and cultures to become global, i.e., worldwide.
7. What is meant by Free Flow of Capital under a Global Economy?
Answer: By ‘Free Flow of Capital under a Global Economy’, it is meant that the investors have an access to global capital markets. For instance, the American companies and businessmen are investing millions of dollars in Indian companies and the Indian investors can invest their money in American, European or other foreign companies.
8. What is meant by Cultural Heterogenisation in the context of a Globalised World?
Answer: Cultural Heterogenisation means “many different types of culture existing side by side”. For example, along with the fast foods of the Western World, South Indian masala-dosa and Chinese noodles are also highly popular in the world.
9. What is Protectionism? How this policy could protect Indian industries?
Answer: To help our own producers and to save them from foreign competition, we adopted the policy of ‘Protectionism’. In other words, heavy taxes had to be paid on imported goods. This helped our own industries, because it restricted imports.
This helped Indian industries grow as they faced less competition from foreign goods, and it also protected Indian jobs within these industries.
10. On what grounds did the Leftists oppose Globalisation in India?
Answer: Leftists’ Criticism of Globalisation includes: (i) Privatisation meant a ‘Capitalist Economy’ in which the capitalists exploited the workers, (ii) some American and European Firms had been trying to obtain a patent for Neem and Haldi to extract natural resources from these plants, (iii) Due to the withdrawal of subsidised health services, cuts in education expenses and other welfare measures, the sick and unemployed grew restless in many countries. The living conditions of the people were becoming more and more difficult, and (iv) new technology, no doubt, led to an increase in production, but it also resulted in unemployment and economic inequalities.
11. On what grounds did the Rightists oppose Globalisation in India?
Answer: The rightists or the right-wing writers criticised Globalisation on the following grounds: (i) Globalisation posed a threat to the economic and political sovereignty of the weaker nations. Now India’s policies are being framed in accordance with the interests and directions of WTO and Multi-national Corporations, and (ii) Western Culture degraded our social values. Foreign TV channels and growing Western tastes among Indian girls and boys are a threat to our cultural values. TV programmers have even promoted the Valentine Day as country’s national festival.
C. Very short answer questions
12. What is meant by ‘Free Flow of Goods’ in relation to Globalisation?
Answer: By ‘Free Flow of Goods’ in relation to Globalisation, it is meant that Globalisation greatly facilitated the movement of goods across national borders.
13. What are ‘Social Safety Nets’ in the context of a Welfare State?
Answer: In the context of a Welfare State, ‘Social Safety Nets’ refer to state subsidies on education, housing and health to cover the ill effects of Globalisation. Unfortunately for the poor, there has been a decline in state expenditure on services, such as health and education.
14. What is Neo-Colonialism in the context of Globalised Economy?
Answer: In the context of a Globalised Economy, Neo-Colonialism refers to the economic control over poorer nations. Economic policies of underdeveloped countries are being framed in accordance with the directions of World Bank and WTO.
D. Multiple Choice Questions: Tick (✔) the correct answer
15. Why did the American and European Firms try to obtain a patent for neem?
Answer: (c) Because the Western Firms wanted to extract natural resources from the neem plants.
16. Globalisation did affect State Sovereignty. What type of consequence is this?
Answer: (b) Political Consequence.
17. Leftists in India Opposed Globalisation. Leftism refers to the beliefs of what kind of persons?
Answer: (a) Those who support Socialist ideals.
Because of Globalisation lakhs of people are now working in Call Centres. Most of them remain awake all night and go to bed at the end of the night. Therefore, their body clock and daily routine get disturbed. Sometimes they receive angry and abusive callers. What suggestions would you give to those working in Call Centres to keep calm?
Answer: Working in a call center can indeed be challenging, especially considering the disrupted sleep schedule and dealing with difficult callers. Here are some suggestions to help call center employees keep calm:
Take regular breaks: It’s important to take short breaks throughout the shift to relax and recharge. Use these breaks to stretch, walk around, or engage in calming activities like deep breathing or meditation.
Practice stress management techniques: Learn and utilize stress management techniques such as deep breathing exercises, mindfulness, or progressive muscle relaxation. These techniques can help reduce anxiety and promote relaxation during and after calls.
Establish a self-care routine: Prioritize self-care activities outside of work, such as getting enough sleep, eating nutritious meals, and engaging in regular physical exercise. Taking care of your overall well-being will help you better cope with the demands of the job.
Seek social support: Connect with colleagues who understand the challenges of working in a call center. Share experiences, seek advice, and provide support to each other. Having a supportive network can help alleviate stress and provide a sense of camaraderie.
Practice empathy and active listening: When dealing with difficult callers, try to empathize with their concerns and actively listen to their grievances. Responding calmly and professionally can often defuse the situation and help you maintain composure.
Seek professional support if needed: If the stress becomes overwhelming or starts affecting your mental health, don’t hesitate to seek professional support. Consult a therapist or counselor who can provide guidance and strategies to manage stress effectively.
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