Protecting our fauna: BSEM Class 10 English (Course Book) notes

Protecting our fauna
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Get summary, textbook solutions, questions, answers, notes, pdf, and extras to the chapter “Protecting Our Fauna” which is a part of Class 10 English (Course Book) syllabus for students studying under BSEM. The notes should, however, only be seen as references only and changes should be made according to needs.

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The northeastern region of India is blessed with a rich variety of flora and fauna. The lush green forests, monsoon rains, and sub-tropical climate provide a conducive environment for diverse plant and animal species to thrive. Among the diverse fauna found here, two rare and unique animals stand out – the Sangai deer of Manipur and the one-horned rhinoceros of Assam.

The Sangai deer, scientifically known as Cervus eldi eldi, is a unique gift of nature to Manipur. Romantically called the ‘dancing deer’ due to its elegant gait, it is found only in the Keibul Lamjao National Park. This park is a unique wetland made up of floating vegetation called ‘phumdi’. The Sangai deer was once thought to be extinct but was rediscovered in 1953. Despite being a protected species, its existence remains threatened.

One major threat to the Sangai is the Loktak Hydro Electric Project, which has disturbed the natural cycle of the park area sinking and floating as per seasons. This has led to a lack of nutrients and grass for the deer. Humans living in surrounding villages also pose a risk by encroaching into the park for cultivation, grazing livestock, collecting firewood, and most alarmingly, poaching the deer illegally.

The one-horned rhinoceros is another rare species facing extinction in Assam. These majestic creatures, second only in size to elephants, were once found in thousands across the river basins of the Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra. However, relentless hunting in the 1800s and 1900s for sport rendered them nearly extinct. Although sport hunting was later prohibited, poaching continues due to the unfounded belief that rhino horns have medicinal properties.

Between 1980 and 1993, 692 rhinos were poached in India, with 41 being killed in Laokhowa Wildlife Sanctuary in 1983 alone, virtually wiping out the entire population there. The Indian government has taken major steps to conserve the Indian rhinoceros by banning all rhino hunting in 1910 and confining the remaining population to national parks and sanctuaries, primarily in eastern India. Kaziranga National Park is the largest of these sanctuaries, housing 2,329 rhinos as of 2012.

Apart from the Sangai and rhino, many other animals and birds face the constant threat of extinction due to poaching and habitat encroachment across the country. It is crucial to realise that all creatures, big and small, belong to this earth, and their loss would make the world a dull and joyless place. Protecting these beautiful animals is not just the responsibility of the government but also a duty for all citizens.

The author emphasises that if we wish for these majestic animals to continue beautifying the earth, we must take active steps to protect them from the threats posed by human greed, thoughtlessness, and disregard for nature’s delicate balance.

Textbook solutions

Based on your reading complete the following

a. The world is what it is a habitable planet in fact the only planet so far known to man in which living beings can dwell and prosper.

b. Endowed with diverse tourist attractions North East India is the melting – pot of flora and fauna.

c. The Sangai deer (scientific name cervus eldi eldi) once believed to be extinct was rediscovered in the year 1953.

d. They encroach upon the park area for cultivation, grazing of livestock and for collecting fire woods.

e. In Laokhowa Wildfire Sanctuary 41 rhinos were killed in 1983 virtually the entire population of the sanctuary.

Based on your reading answer the following

a. Name the two world renowned breeds of fauna found in the North Eastern region of India. 

Answer: The Sangai deer of Manipur and the Rhinoceros of Assam. 

b. What are the different names of the Sangai? 

Answer: The Sangai is also called the dancing deer and the brow-antlered deer. 

c. What is a “phumdi”? 

Answer: A phumdi is a floating mat of vegetation. 

d. What makes the rhino a unique creature? 

Answer: Its uniqueness lies in its size, second only to the elephant, with a horn growing vertically upon the middle of its forehead and thick skin with folds. 

e. What makes North East India a conducive place for the growth of flora and fauna? 

Answer: The monsoon rain and the sub-tropical climate of North East India make it a region conducive to the growth of varied breeds of flora and fauna.

Answer each of the following question briefly

a. How is Loktak Hydro Electric Project a major threat to the Sangai? 

Answer: The Loktak Hydro Electric Project disrupts the natural cycle of the Keibul Lamjao National Park, preventing the area from sinking and floating during the dry and wet seasons, respectively. This disturbance leads to a lack of nutrients and a shortage of grass for the Sangai deer, posing a significant threat to its survival. 

b. State the reasons which caused the near extinction of the one-horned rhino from India. 

Answer: The near extinction of the one-horned rhino in India was primarily caused by relentless and persistent hunting in the name of sport throughout the 1800s and early 1900s. Despite the prohibition of sport-hunting in the early 1900s, poaching remains a significant threat, driven by the unfounded belief in the medicinal properties of rhino horns. 

c. What are the major steps taken up by the Indian government for the conservation of wild life? 

Answer: Major steps taken by the Indian government include the prohibition of all rhino hunting in 1910 and the establishment of protected areas, such as national parks, where rhinos are confined. These efforts have significantly contributed to the recovery of the Indian one-horned rhinoceros population. 

d. What is sport hunting and why was it prohibited? 

Answer: Sport hunting is the practice of hunting wild animals for recreational purposes. It was prohibited due to its devastating impact on wildlife populations, leading to the near extinction of species such as the one-horned rhinoceros. 

e. What is the difference between Wildlife Sanctuaries and National Park? 

Answer: National Parks are areas designated to protect the natural environment and wildlife, where activities such as poaching, hunting, and habitat destruction are strictly prohibited. Wildlife Sanctuaries also aim to protect animals and their habitats but may allow for more human activities under regulated conditions.

Choose the correct word

a. Are you interesting / interested in football?

Answer: interested

b. The football match was quite exciting / excited. I enjoyed it.

Answer: excited

c. I had never expected to get the job. I was really amazing / amazed when I was offered it. 

Answer: amazed 

d. I didn’t find the situation funny. I was not amusing / amused.

Answer: amused

e. Do you easily get embarrassing / embarrassed? f. The lecture was boring / bored. I fell asleep.

Answer: embarrassed

f. The lecture was boring / bored. I fell asleep.

Answer: boring

Read and answer the questions

A major threat to KLNP and Sangai is posed by land encroachment and human habitation. Taking advantage of the Phumdi fixed in the KLNP, villagers encroach upon the park area to build houses or to grow agricultural crops or for cattle grazing and fishing. This not only disturbs the life cycle of the fauna, but also leads to the shrinking of the actual park area.

People who enter the KLNP on the pretext of fishing or some such activity, often indulge in poaching of the Sangai, for which they lay traps, use sickles, and even guns.

Collection of fodder for the cattle and of personal use for food plants and firewood for personal use for money, provides another strong motive to the villages living nearby to decimate the ecology of the KLNP, thus destroying the habitat of the Sangai and interfering with its breeding.

(i) Why do people encroach upon the park area?

Answer: People encroach upon the park area to build houses, grow agricultural crops, graze cattle, and for fishing. This encroachment disrupts the life cycle of the fauna and leads to the shrinking of the actual park area.

(ii) What different means of poaching do the encroachers use?

Answer: The encroachers use traps, sickles, and even guns for poaching the Sangai.

(iii) Which human activities contribute to the decimation of the KLNP ecology?

Answer: Activities contributing to the decimation of the KLNP ecology include building houses, agricultural activities, cattle grazing, fishing, collecting fodder for cattle, gathering food plants, and collecting firewood for personal use, which collectively destroy the habitat of the Sangai and interfere with its breeding.

(iv) Find out the words that mean the following:

(a) to go into an area which is beyond the desired limit.
(b) a season which hides the real reason.


(a) Encroach
(b) Pretext

Look at the following dialogue between two men

Man : Hello! I’am weak. I want to be strong. I’ve heard rhino horn can make me strong again. Can you give me one ?
Poacher : Well! It is a dangerous thing. But I can bring you one. For that I’ve to kill a rhino. I can do that if the price is right.
Man : I’ll give you any price you want.
Poacher : I’ll kill one rhino. I’ll kill two if the price is right.

What do you think of the above dialogue? How will you describe human motive?

Answer: The dialogue presents a deeply troubling interaction between two individuals, highlighting the unethical and illegal nature of wildlife poaching, driven by misguided beliefs and greed. The first man, seeking strength, believes in the debunked myth that rhino horn possesses medicinal properties, showcasing a lack of awareness or disregard for scientific facts and the conservation status of rhinos. His willingness to pay any price reflects a dangerous level of desperation or belief in pseudoscience, prioritising personal gain over ethical considerations and the well-being of endangered species.

The poacher’s response emphasizes the morally reprehensible nature of poaching, driven by profit without concern for the grave consequences of his actions on wildlife conservation. His readiness to kill an endangered animal, and even more if the price is right, reveals a blatant disregard for the law, animal welfare, and the ecological balance. This dialogue starkly illustrates how human motives, when skewed by misinformation and greed, can lead to the exploitation and decimation of wildlife. It underscores the urgent need for education on conservation issues, stronger wildlife protection laws, and enforcement to combat such illegal activities.

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