Indian National Movement: NBSE class 9 social science chapter 4

Indian National movement class 9 NBSE social science
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Get notes, questions, solutions, textual answers, pdf, extras, for Chapter 4: Indian National Movement, which is a part of the social science class 9 syllabus of students studying under the Nagaland Board of School Education. However, these notes should be used only for references and additions/modifications should be made as per the requirements.

Introduction

It is ironic that the establishment of British rule in India gave birth to nationalism in India. First and foremost, India was unified politically for the first time under the British. A uniform legal system, uniform currency, and a uniform system of administration made Indians think of India as one nation. The spread and imposition of western education, and the use of English as a common language produced unity of thought, feelings, and ideas. There was a rediscovery of India’s glorious past that revived pride and self-respect among the Indians.

The modern means of communication, the role of the press and literature, and the works of the reformers contributed greatly to the growth of nationalism. Above all, was the realisation that the British were exploiting India’s economic resources for their own benefit. They were not paying any heed to education, health, sanitation, irrigation, and industry. The British followed a policy of discrimination against Indians in their own country. More Englishmen were in the legislative assemblies and civil services. Last, but not least, was the racial arrogance and racial discrimination practised by the British. They established exclusive clubs for English, they tried to strangle the press with various acts (Press Act of 1878 and the Arms Act of 1878). An English offender could not be tried in the court of an Indian judge. All these factors led to a reawakening in India and nationalism became a huge mass movement for complete independence.

Textual questions and answers

Choose the correct answer

1. The first session of the Congress was held in:

A. Calcutta, 1886 B. Bombay, 1885 C. Surat, 1887 D. Bombay, 1889

Answer: B. Bombay, 1885

2. “Freedom is my birthright and I shall have it” was a slogan given by:

A. Gandhiji B. Bipin Chandra Pal C. Subhash Chandra Bose D. Lokmanya Bal Gangadhar Tilak

Answer: D. Lokmanya Bal Gangadhar Tilak

3. When was Bengal partitioned? A. 1905 B. 1907 C. 1906 D. 1911

Answer: A. 1905

4. The famous ‘Dandi March’ of Gandhiji began on:

A. 12 April, 1930 B. 22 April, 1930 C. 1 April, 1930 D. None of the above

Answer: C. 1 April, 1930

5. The slogan “Do or Die” was given to the nation by:

A. Bhagat Singh B. V.D. Savarkar C. Mahatma Gandhi D. Rash Behari Bose

Answer: C. Mahatma Gandhi

6. There are two statements marked as Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Mark your answer as per the codes provided below.

Assertion (A): The violence at Chauri Chaura prompted Gandhiji to call-off the Non-Cooperation Movement.
Reason (R): Mahatma Gandhi realised that the nation was not yet prepared for a peaceful and disciplined mass movement.

A. Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A) B. Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A) C. (A) is correct but (R) is wrong D. (A) is wrong but (R) is correct

Answer: A. Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)

7. What was the contribution of the above personality in the national movement?

A. He was a close associate of Mahatma Gandhi B. He played a pivotal role in founding the Indian National Congress C. He took an active part in the Non-Cooperation Movement D. As a Viceroy, he partitioned Bengal

Answer: B. He played a pivotal role in founding the Indian National Congress

8. Arrange the following statements in sequential order based on the events.

I. General Dyer opened fire at the large crowd gathered in the enclosed ground of Jallianwalla Bagh. II. “Forced recruitment” carried out by the British government and the economic hardships faced by the people during the first world war. III. The defeat of the Ottoman Emperor of Turkey led to the formation of the Khilafat movement. IV. Gandhji launched a nationwide satyagraha against the Rowlatt Act.

A. (IV), (III), (II), (I) B. (II), (I), (III), (IV) C. (I), (IV), (III), (II) D. (I), (II), (III), (IV)

Answer: D. (I), (II), (III), (IV)

Very short answer type questions

1. Who was the first President of Indian National Congress?

Answer: Womesh Chandra Bonnerjee was the first President of the Indian National Congress.

2. Why did the leaders of the Indian National Congress want the association with Britain in the beginning and not separation?

Answer: They believed that if public opinion was created and organised and popular demands presented to the authorities through petitions, meetings, resolutions and speeches, the authorities would concede these demands gradually. They had full faith in the good intentions of the British Government.

3. Name the Viceroy who divided Bengal into two provinces. What was his real motive?

Answer: Lord Curzon was the Viceroy who divided Bengal into two provinces. His real motive was to divide the Hindu-Bengali and make them minorities in both provinces so as to weaken the nationalist movement led by Congress.

4. Mention two acts of Bal Gangadhar Tilak to inculcate self-confidence and national pride among the Indian people.

Answer: The two acts of Bal Gangadhar Tilak to inculcate self-confidence and national pride among the Indian people are:
I. He raised the slogan, “Freedom is my birthright and I shall have it.”
II. He revived Ganapati and Shivaji festivals in Maharashtra to arouse national feelings.

5. When did Gandhiji enter Indian politics and what were the two new weapons he used in the struggle for independence?

Answer: Gandhiji entered Indian politics in the year 1915. His two weapons were non-violence and Satyagraha.

6. Mention two aims of the Non-Cooperation Movement.

Answer: The aims of this movement were to redress the wrongs done to Punjab and Turkey and to achieve the aim of Swaraj.

Short answer type questions

1. Describe the main contributions of the following leaders :
(a) Bal Gangadhar Tilak
(b) Lala Lajpat Rai
(c) Bipin Chandra Pal

Answer: (a) Bal Gangadhar Tilak laid great stress on the sufferings and sacrifices of the people. He raised the slogan, “Freedom is my birthright and I shall have it.” He was active in Congress from 1890. He revived the Ganapati and Shivaji festivals in Maharashtra to arouse national feelings. He infused new life into Indian politics and built confidence in the people to fight political tyranny.

(b) Lala Lajpat Rai believed in direct action and agitated in Punjab for reform in agriculture. He started a newspaper ‘Young India’ and was the President of Congress. He inspired the Punjabis with a new national spirit and made them bold and patriotic. He was a great social reformer and educationist. He opened orphanages and hospitals. He was an active worker of the Arya Samaj and opposed the policy of the Early Nationalists.

(c) Bipin Chandra Pal was born in Bangladesh in 1858. He joined the Chennai Congress and made a powerful speech against Arms Act. He was a wonderful orator who spoke for swadeshi and boycott and started a journal called “New India.” He wanted India to take sterner measures against the British and was charged with supporting Aurobindo Ghose. Bipin Chandra Pal stood for complete freedom.

2. How did the people of Bengal react to the Partition of Bengal?

Answer: Lord Curzon’s highly unpopular measure of partitioning the state of Bengal led to an Assertive/Radical Nationalist movement. It was led by three ‘Bal, Pal, and Lal’. The movement was called Swadeshi and Boycott movement. “Swadeshi” means “of one’s own country.” The Swadeshi and Boycott movements spread to almost all parts of the country. The national movement thus became a mass movement.

3. How did the National Movement become a mass movement after 1919? [HOTS]

Answer: To protest against the arrests of Gandhiji and two prominent Congress leaders, a large crowd gathered at Jallianwala Bagh on April 13, 1919. General Dyer, with his troops, entered the park, and without giving any warning, he ordered his troops to fire. Dyer left 1000 dead and more than 2000 wounded. It sent a wave of anger and shock throughout the country. This prompted Gandhiji and the Congress to launch the Non-Cooperation Movement and people. Thus, the National Movement become a mass movement after 1919.

4. What were the main aims of the Muslim League?

Answer: The main aims of the Muslim League were:

a) To promote, among the Muslims of India, feelings of loyalty to the British Government and to remove any misconception that may arise due to the intentions of the Government with regard to Indian Muslims.
b) To protect and advance the political rights of the Muslims in India and respectfully represent their needs and aspirations to the Government.
c) To prevent the rise among the Muslims of India of any feeling of hostility towards other communities without prejudice to the aforesaid object of the league.

5. ‘Mahatma Gandhi found in salt a powerful symbol that could unite the nation.’ Explain.

Answer: Mahatma Gandhi found in salt a powerful symbol that could unite the nation. On January 31, 1930, he sent a letter to Lord Irwin, the Viceroy, stating eleven demands. The most important demand was to abolish the salt tax. Lord Irwin refused any sort of negotiation. So Gandhiji began the Dandi March. Civil Disobedience began with Gandhiji breaking the Salt Law. He had started with only a few followers, but thousands of men and women joined him as he marched forward. His ‘Dandi March ‘aroused the whole nation.

Long answer type questions

1. Discuss the impact and significance of the Boycott and Swadeshi Movement.

Answer: The partition of Bengal created widespread dissatisfaction and discontent all over the country. This indignation all over the country created a turbulent atmosphere and led to the Boycott and Swadeshi Movements. “Swadeshi” means “of one’s own country.” It aimed at the promotion of indigenous industries and the boycott of British goods. The movements spread to almost all parts of the country. Shops selling foreign goods were picketed. Students also played an important part in the movement. The national movement became a mass movement. The movement gave a stimulus to the growth of indigenous industries and crafts. Swadeshi factories came into existence everywhere.

2. Which factors contributed to the awakening of national consciousness among the Indian people? [HOTS]

Answer: The factors that contributed to the awakening of national consciousness among the Indian people were:

i. India was unified politically for the first time under the British. A uniform legal system, uniform currency, and a uniform system of administration made Indians think of India as one nation.
ii. The spread and imposition of western education, and the use of English as a common language produced unity of thought, feelings, and ideas.
iii. There was a rediscovery of India’s glorious past that revived pride and self-respect among the Indians.
iv. The modern means of communication, the role of the press and literature, and the works of the reformers contributed greatly to the growth of nationalism.
v. Above all was the realisation that the British were exploiting India’s economic resources for their own benefit.
vi. The British followed a policy of discrimination against the Indians in their own country. More Englishmen were in the legislative assemblies and civil services.

3. Give an estimate of Gandhiji’s role in India’s struggle for freedom.

Answer: After a successful and significant political career in South Africa, Gandhiji returned to India in January 1915. Gandhiji contributed immensely to the freedom struggle of India and gave it a new direction with his entry into Indian politics. He spearheaded the Indian National Movement with new ideas that resonated with the masses. He was a staunch believer in non-violence. Gandhiji understood the importance of unity among the Indians for the freedom struggle to become a success. Therefore, he took up various social initiatives to unite the people, like his campaign against untouchability. At the beginning of his political career in India, he organised a number of Satyagrahas and later spearheaded massive movements like the Non-Cooperation, which planned to wreck the government in the country by not co-operating with it anymore, the Civil Disobedience Movement, and the Quit India Movement.

All these impacted significantly on the British government in India. He was able to unite the whole country and went to jail several times. It is safe to say that though everyone contributed equally to the freedom struggle, it was Gandhiji who kept the country together.

4. Describe the main features of the Quit India Movement.

Answer: The main features of the Quit India Movement are:

i) It authorised Gandhiji to launch the Quit India Movement against the British on non-violent lines and on the widest possible scale. Gandhiji raised the slogan ‘Do or Die.’
ii) A large number of congressmen were also put behind bars. The people were leaderless, unorganised, unprepared, and undirected. So the movement took a violent turn.
iii) The movement became a popular upsurge, and the whole country rose to overthrow British Rule. It was the last mass uprising against British rule in India.
iv) There was much tension, the government was alarmed and became nervous. It adopted a repressive policy to suppress the movement.
v) By using repressive measures, the government succeeded in crushing the movement within a few weeks.
vi) The revolt was short-lived but very intensive. About 10,000 people died in the firing and about 70,000 were put behind the bars.

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6 thoughts on “Indian National Movement: NBSE class 9 social science chapter 4”

  1. The Notes here is well understood and so precise. Yet it is unorganised and does not look modern. Better if the notes can be downloaded in pdf format. So that even without net once downloaded can be easily assessible and easy to comprehend. Requesting the honourable editorial team to play furnished in pdf file as soon as possible

    Editor’s response

    Thank you for your feedback. You can download the chapter in pdf format by clicking on the PDF icon found in the beginning of the chapter. However, it is only accessible to registered users.

  2. THANK YOU SO MUCH ONLINEFREENOTES FOR THE GENEROUS ANSWERS I WAS GOING TO FAIL IN MY EXAM BUT YOU GUYS SAVED ME THANK YOU SOOOOO MUCH AGAIN MAY GOD BLESS YOU All

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