Here, you will find summaries, questions, answers, textbook solutions, pdf, extras etc. of (Nagaland Board) NBSE Class 11 Education Chapter 7: Indigenous System of Education in Nagaland. These solutions, however, should be only treated as references and can be modified/changed.
The Indigenous System of Education in Nagaland is a unique blend of traditional practices and cultural heritage. This system, deeply rooted in the Naga society, revolves around three primary institutions: the family, the Morung, and the festivals.
The family, being the first institution of learning, plays a pivotal role in the economic, ethical, and sexual education of the Nagas. Trades of economic value such as basket weaving, cloth making, and farming are taught at home. The family also imparts ethical values and sex education to the younger generation. The principle of socialism, “from everyone according to capacity and to each one according to need,” is a fundamental tenet followed by every Naga family.
The Morung, an exclusive educational system for boys, is another significant institution of learning. It plays a crucial role in preserving the culture and social heritage of the tribe. The Morung serves as a center of learning, where young boys are taught the methods of agriculture and other domestic works.
Festivals are an integral part of Naga culture and serve as tools for learning and passing on culture to the next generation. Each tribe has its unique festivals, often accompanied by traditional dress, folk songs, dances, feasts, and games. The famous ‘war dance’ performed by men, accompanied by folk songs and war cries, is a highlight of these festivals. Indigenous musical instruments such as bamboo mouth organs, cup-violins, bamboo flutes, trumpets, and drums made of cattle skin are used during these celebrations.
Despite the spread of Christianity among the Naga people, these festivals are still celebrated with great fervor. The Government of Nagaland has introduced the Hornbill Festival, known as the festival of festivals, to preserve and promote the rich cultural heritage of the state.
Textual questions and answers
Very Short Answer Type Questions
1. What are the three institutions of indigenous education in Nagaland?
Answer: The three institutions of indigenous education in Nagaland are family, Morung, and festivals.
2. Explain the secret of domestic harmony in Naga families.
Answer: The secret of domestic harmony in Naga families is that the husband and wife respect each other.
3. What is the importance of Morung for unmarried boys?
Answer: Morung was important for unmarried boys as a place to sleep, guard the village, and receive training and education.
4. Why joint families are not existing among Nagas?
Answer: Among Nagas, joint family system is not found. They are independent-minded people and do not like depending on others for their livelihood. Sons build their own homes after getting married rather than living with their parents.
5. Where the general community services were performed in the village?
Answer: The general community services were performed in the Morung in the village.
6. When is the Hornbill festival celebrated?
Answer: The Hornbill Festival is held every year from December 1 to 10.
7. Where are the models of Morung belonging to different tribes built in Nagaland?
Answer: The models of Morung belonging to different tribes of Nagaland are built at Kisama, in the district Kohima.
Short Answer Type Questions
1. What is the use of log drums?
Answer: Log drums are kept in the Morung and are used on certain occasions like festivals as a musical instrument. The nature of the situation would be indicated by the different sounds of the log drum.
2. Morung was the primary educational institution. Explain.
Answer: ‘Morung’ or communal dormitory for young men and women was the most important traditional institution of the Naga tribes within the village. Every khel (cluster of clans) had a Morung. It was the primary educational institution that nurtured and prepared the young of every clan for life and living. All clan/khel/village history, songs, folklores and legends, traditional practices, including the laws governing community living, were taught in the Morung.
3. Write a paragraph on the curriculum activities of Morung.
Answer: Activities of Morung are never organised. These are spontaneous, and members respond naturally. Morung is an institution where young people are given training in discipline and proper instructions for every field of life. As there were no schools so, Morung played an important role in making young people effective members of society. They (men) learn the arts of handcraft like Bamboo work, Wood carving, Basket making, Cane work, and Black smithy. During their stay in girls’ dormitories, the women learn different kinds of arts like Cloth making, Embroidery. For preserving the cultural heritage of the past they learn the art of dancing and singing. Through the medium of folk music, dance, folk tales and historical traditions are narrated orally. Carving figures on stone and wood and design on clothes, especially on shawls, etc., are other handicrafts taught in a Morung. The learning and teaching processes take place in Morung.
4. What is the importance of dance among the Nagas?
Answer: Naga dances are accompanied by music or shouts of some kind. Nagas perform a variety of dances. The dances are performed during social functions and religious ceremonies. Nagas love dancing and singing. The famous ‘war dance’ is performed by a group of men accompanied by folk songs and war cries by the dance troupe.
5. Explain the general intention of Naga festivals.
Answer: Most of the festivals revolve around agriculture, which is the mainstay of the Naga society. People, irrespective of gender and age, dressed in colourful traditional attire, participate in traditional games, music, folk songs and dance, etc., to celebrate the festival. Naga festivals have lost their glory ever since Christianity spread its roots among the Naga people. However, festivals are still celebrated by different tribes even today with the great purpose of preserving the culture and social heritage of the tribe.
Long Answer Type Questions
1. Explain Morung as a centre of learning.
Answer: The ‘Morung’ or communal dormitory for young men and women was the most important traditional institution of the Naga tribes within the village. Every khel (cluster of clans) had a Morung. It was the primary educational institution that nurtured and prepared the young of every clan for life and living. All clan/khel/village history, songs, folklores and legends, traditional practices, including the laws governing community living, were taught in the Morung. Morung also served as the fortress of the village, where young unmarried men used to sleep and guard the village. Morung is an Ahom word which means houses, barracks or dormitories where unmarried boys sleep in group. The Morung is the heart of the village organisation and a base for village administration. It was the institutionalised mechanism of social control and education. Morung can be compared to Pathsala of Vedic period.
2. Write an essay on Morung, its role as an educational agency.
Answer: Morung, an exclusive system of education for boys in Nagaland, played a pivotal role as an educational agency. It was a big hall built separately for young men to sleep and to keep watch at night on the enemies. Morung was a large building and very important and prominent structure in the village. It was located at the entrance of the village or on a spot from where the whole village could be guarded effectively. After attaining the age of puberty, boys were admitted to their respective dormitory. Men could sleep at Morung for some time even after their marriage. Generally, these were for unmarried boys. There was no fee for staying in the Morung, but all the members had to take part in the activities of a Morung. Morung acted as the hospitality centre of the community where visitors were admitted for temporary stay. They were entertained in the Morung. Morung was autonomous body free from any external influences on its administration activities. They had their own councillors, advisors and administrators from among the senior members of the village.
3. Explain the economic functions of Naga family.
Answer: In Naga society, family is of prime importance as a social unit. Social organisation is based on family being the prime economic unit. The household and its property, house and farm land, are operated as single economic and social unit with the cooperative help of senior members of the family. Trades of economic value are first learnt in the farm or home. Basket and Mat weaving cloth making etc., are taught at home and cultivation is always learnt in the field or family farm. It is the duty of parents or relatives or grandparents to teach young boys the methods of agriculture. Girls learn the fetching of fire wood and water for home and also other domestic works. Young children watch the elders performing their duties and later they are asked to join the activity. On making mistakes they try again. Every Naga contributed his/her services to the family. Family followed the “Principle of Socialism” “from every one according to capacity and to each one according to need.”
Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) Questions
1. Nagaland is a “Land of Festivals.” Justify.
Answer: Nagaland is known as the ‘Land of Festivals’ because the state abounds with festivities all through the year. It is predominantly a tribal state, and most of the festivals revolve around agriculture, which is the mainstay of the Naga society. People, irrespective of gender and age, dressed in colourful traditional attire, participate in traditional games, music, folk songs and dance, etc., to celebrate the festival. Even though Naga festivals have lost some of their glory ever since Christianity spread its roots among the Naga people, festivals are still celebrated by different tribes even today with a great purpose of preserving culture and social heritage of the tribe. The Government of Nagaland introduced the festival of festivals involving the Hornbill Festival which is held every year. At Kisama, in the district Kohima, a permanent site is developed where models of Morung belonging to different tribes of Nagaland are built.
Additional/extra questions and answers
1. What is the population and geographical size of Nagaland as per the 2011 Census?
Answer: The population of Nagaland, as per the 2011 Census, was 19.78 lakh. The state covers a geographical area of 16,579 square kilometers.
2. Describe the location and boundaries of Nagaland.
Answer: Nagaland is located in the northeastern part of India. It is bounded by Myanmar and Arunachal Pradesh in the east, Assam in the west and north, and Manipur in the south.
3. How many major tribes inhabit Nagaland and what are their names?
Answer: Nagaland is inhabited by 16 major tribes. These are Ao, Angami, Chang, Konyak, Lotha, Sumi, Chakhesang, Khiamniungam, Kachari, Phom, Rengma, Sangtam, Yimchungru, Kuki, Zeliang, and Pochury.
4. What are the common features of Naga tribal huts?
Answer: Naga tribal huts are typically constructed with wood, bamboo, and straw. Each tribe has its own distinctive design, but a common characteristic is that they all decorate the entrances of their huts with the skulls of animals.
5. What are the typical traditional crafts among the Nagas?
Answer: Nagas are efficient in iron works and are skillful in making baskets, pottery, and other bamboo products. They are also experts in carpentry and stone work. Women are traditionally skilled in weaving, creating intricate designs on simple loin looms.
53. What has been the impact of Christianity on Naga festivals, and how have the tribal communities responded?
Answer: Christianity’s spread among the Naga people has led to a decline in the grandeur of Naga festivals. Despite the influence of Christianity, these festivals are still celebrated by different tribes today, with a significant focus on preserving the cultural and social heritage of the tribe. In response to the changing cultural landscape, the Government of Nagaland introduced the festival of festivals, known as the Hornbill Festival. This annual event is held in Kisama, in the district of Kohima, where a permanent site has been developed featuring models of Morung belonging to different tribes of Nagaland. This initiative not only encourages the preservation and continuation of traditional practices but also fosters a sense of unity and cultural exchange among the diverse tribes of Nagaland. Thus, while Christianity has had an impact, the tribal communities have found ways to adapt and continue celebrating their unique cultural heritage.
1. What is the population of Nagaland as per the 2011 Census?
A. 16.78 lakh B. 17.78 lakh C. 18.78 lakh D. 19.78 lakh
Answer: D. 19.78 lakh
2. Which state borders Nagaland in the south?
A. Assam B. Manipur C. Arunachal Pradesh D. Mizoram
Answer: B. Manipur
3. How many major tribes inhabit Nagaland?
A. 10 B. 12 C. 16 D. 20
Answer: C. 16
4. What are the Nagas’ huts primarily made of?
A. Stone and mud B. Wood, bamboo, and straw C. Clay and thatch D. Brick and cement
Answer: B. Wood, bamboo, and straw
5. What are the skulls of animals used for in Naga tribal culture?
A. Worship B. Medicine C. Decoration D. Trading
Answer: C. Decoration
90. Who inaugurates the ‘Metemneo’ festival?
A. Zhihto B. Kheanpuru C. Hega D. Zumto
Answer: B. Kheanpuru
Get notes of other boards, classes, and subjects