Interest and Pressure Groups: NBSE Class 12 Political Science

Interest and Pressure Groups nbse 12
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Get summary, textual answers, solutions, notes, extras, PDF to NBSE Class 12 (Arts) Political Science Chapter 6 Interest and Pressure Groups. However, the educational materials should only be used for reference and students are encouraged to make necessary changes.

Introduction

The chapter delves into the role and characteristics of pressure groups in India, their distinction from political parties, and their influence on various sectors, including business, trade unions, peasant organizations, and caste-based groups. It also highlights the constitutional safeguards for weaker sections, particularly the Scheduled Castes (SCs) and Scheduled Tribes (STs), focusing on special provisions aimed at promoting their social and economic interests.

The First Backward Classes Commission, appointed in 1953, and the Mandal Commission, appointed in 1978, are also discussed. The latter identified 3,743 communities as Other Backward Classes (OBCs) and recommended a 27% reservation of all government jobs for the OBCs.

The Supreme Court’s verdict in 1992 upheld the decision to grant reservation to the OBCs, but it also ruled that the ‘creamy layer’ among the backward communities should be excluded from the right of reservation. The text concludes by stating that all major political parties now support the policy of reservations, and reservations are likely to persist in India indefinitely.

Textual questions and answers

A. Long answer questions

1. Examine the role of pressure groups in India.

Answer: The roles of pressure groups in India are:

Pressure on Legislators: Pressure Groups influence the process of law-making. Their representatives meet Members of Parliament, assure electoral assistance to gain their support, and hold rallies and demonstrations in support of their demands.

Groups seek to influence the Ministers: In India, the real power lies with the Ministers. Hence the representatives of the Pressure Groups try to establish contacts with them.

Pressurizing the Administrators: Pressure Groups establish contacts with Officials through persons who at one time or the other had themselves held high positions in the Government.

Contribution to the Activities of the Political Parties: The big industrial houses as well as trade unions try to influence the policies of the political parties. They contribute to the election-funds of the parties or the candidates at the time of elections.

The Pressure Groups turn to Courts also: There are various laws relating to taxation, wage policy and service-conditions of the workers that need to be interpreted by the Courts. The Chambers of Commerce and Trade Unions do need a sympathetic interpretation of the said laws.

Efforts to Mobilise Public Opinion: Due to the growth of the Mass Media as well as Social Media, it is now possible for the Pressure Groups to take their demands to the people. It is very essential for the transport and communication unions and water and electricity unions to apprise people of their demands, so that Public Opinion may not go against them when they have no option other than to go on strike.

2. What were the main recommendations of the Mandal Commission?

Answer: The main recommendations of the Mandal Commission were:

  • The ‘Backward Castes’ should be treated as ‘Backward Classes’.
  • The population of Other Backward Classes (OBCs) is around 52 per cent of the total population of India. Their representation in public services is very poor in proportion to their numbers.
  • Of all the Government jobs, 27 per cent should be reserved for the OBCs.
  • Seats should be reserved for OBC students in all scientific, technical and professional institutions run by the Union as well as State governments. The quantum of reservation should be 27 per cent.
  • Separate financial institutions for providing financial and technical assistance should be established for the Backward Classes.
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5. Discuss in brief the nature and Characteristics of the Pressure Groups.

Answer: The nature and characteristics of the Pressure Groups are as follows:

Their Objectives are Limited: The political parties have to decide their policies with regard to several matters. The Pressure Group, on the other hand, has one special Interest which it seeks to promote. Bank Unions fight for their rights, whereas farmers’ associations safeguard the interests of the farmers.

Their Activities are shaped by the Nature of Government: The activities of Interest Groups are determined by the fact whether there is a democratic or an autocratic government in a country; or whether the government is Parliamentary or a Presidential one in character. In a dictatorial regime, the effectiveness of pressure groups is very limited. As against this, in Britain, USA, France and other democracies the Pressure Groups have more opportunities of influencing the governmental decisions.

Effect of Party System on the Functioning of Pressure Groups: In a Multi-party system the governments are unstable, because they are formed by an alliance between various parties. In such a situation Pressure Groups do well.

Effect of Economic System on Pressure Groups: In a liberal Capitalist economy most of the industries are in the hands of the big business houses. That is why the Capitalist class is very powerful in countries such as USA. There the working classes also are having their big Unions which can operate in a number of different ways to exert pressure on the Government.

6. Distinguish between Pressure Groups and Political Parties.

Answer: The distinction between Pressure Groups and Political Parties is as follows:

Aim: The aim of the political parties is to capture political power, whereas the pressure groups try to influence the political decisions. In the words of Maurice Duverger, “Pressure groups seek to influence the men who wield power, not to place their own men in Power.”

Formulation of Policies: Political parties have to determine their policies about various matters, such as maintenance of law and order, relations with foreign nations, economic growth, health and education. As against this, the objectives of the Pressure Groups are limited. They take interest in specific matters only.

Membership: No person can belong to more than one political party at a time. On the other hand, a person may be a member of several Pressure Groups, provided their objectives do not clash with each other.

Techniques Employed: Political Parties hold rallies or large public meetings, conduct Election Campaign and distribute party literature. The Pressure Groups establish links with the MPs, Ministers and Government Officials. They also engage lawyers and agents to plead the case or the cause they are fighting for.

7. How would you assess the Role of the Pressure Groups?

Answer: The Role of the Pressure Groups is as follows:

  • Pressure on Legislators: Pressure Groups influence the process of law making. They use various methods in order to influence the legislators. Their representatives meet Members of Parliament. They assure electoral assistance to gain their support. They also hold rallies and demonstrations in support of their demands.
  • Groups seek to influence the Ministers: In India, Britain and other countries having Parliamentary System of Government, the real power lies with the Ministers. Hence the representatives of the Pressure Groups try to establish contacts with them.
  • Pressurizing the Administrators: Pressure Groups establish contacts with Officials through persons who at one time or the other had themselves held high positions in the Government.
  • Contribution to the Activities of the Political Parties: The big industrial houses as well as trade unions try to influence the policies of the political parties. They contribute to the election-funds of the parties or the candidates at the time of elections.
  • The Pressure Groups turn to Courts also: There are various laws relating to taxation, wage policy and service-conditions of the workers that need to be interpreted by the Courts. The Chambers of Commerce and Trade Unions do need a sympathetic interpretation of the said laws.
  • Efforts to Mobilise Public Opinion: Due to the growth of the Mass Media as well as Social Media, it is now possible for the Pressure Groups to take their demands to the people. It is very essential for the transport and communication unions and water and electricity unions to apprise people of their demands, so that Public Opinion may not go against them when they have no option other than to go on strike. 
C. Very short answer question

8. What are the expanded forms of:

(a) FICCI

Answer: Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce & Industry.

(b) INTUC

Answer: Indian National Trade Union Congress.

(c) NSUI-I

Answer: National Students Union of India.

(d) ABVP

Answer: Akhil Bharatiya Vidyarthi Parishad

D. Multiple Choice Questions: Tick (✓) the correct answer

9. The Trade Union is an organisation that has been formed to protect the rights and interests of:

Answer: (c) The workers

10. The First Backward Classes Commission was appointed in 1953 under the Chairmanship of:

Answer: (b) Kaka Saheb Kalelkar.

11. The National Front Government that decided to implement Mandal Commission Report in 1990 was headed by:

Answer: (a) Shri V.P. Singh.

12. According to the Mandal Commission Report which among the following is an Indicator to determine Social Backwardness of a Caste/Class?

Answer: (d) Castes/Classes among whom the proportion of matriculates is at least 25 per cent below the State average.

Extra/additional questions and answers

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Extra/additional MCQs

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