Locational Setting and Relief: NBSE class 9 Social Science notes

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Solutions, questions, answers, and notes of chapter 5: The Locational Setting and Relief which is a part of social science class 9 syllabus of students studying under the Nagaland Board of School Education. However, these notes should be used only for references and additions/modifications should be made as per the requirements.


Although India is an ancient land with thousands of years old history the modern nation came into being only in 1947. The British left India, a region they had ruled for almost two centuries, partitioning it into the two nations of India and Pakistan. They left their mark in many ways, including the popular and widespread use of the English language and a parliamentary system of government. India, officially the Sovereign Socialist Secular Democratic Republic of India is the world’s seventh-largest country. It encompasses a varied landscape rich in natural resources.

India is surrounded by seas on three sides- the Arabian Sea, the Indian Ocean and the Bay of Bengal. This locational setting gives India and its immediate neighbouring countries a unique, geographical entity separated from the rest of Asia. So the land comprising them is collectively termed the Indian subcontinent.

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Textual questions and answers

Choose the correct answer

1. India covers how much of the total world area?

A. 2.2% B. 2.3% C. 2.4% D. 2.5%

Answer: C. 2.4%

2. The islands formed by coral deposits are:

A. Great Andamans B. Nicobar Islands C. Lakshadweep Islands D. The Maldives

Answer: C. Lakshadweep Islands

3. Which latitude divides India into two parts?

A. Equator B. Tropic of Cancer C. Tropic of Capricorn D. None of these

Answer: B. Tropic of Cancer

4. The Garo, Khasi, and Jaintia hills are located in which state?

A. Assam B. Arunachal Pradesh C. Nagaland D. Meghalaya

Answer: D. Meghalaya

5. The highest peak in the world, Mount Everest, is located in which range of the Himalayas?

A. Himadri B. Himachal C. Shiwalik D. Purvachal

Answer: A. Himadri

6. There are two statements marked as Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Mark your answer as per the codes provided below.

Assertion (A): The Peninsular plateau is separated from the Indo-Gangetic plain by many hill ranges.
Reason (R): The northwest part of the peninsular plateau is covered by vast lava flows.

A. Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
B. Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
C. (A) is correct but (R) is wrong
D. (A) is wrong but (R) is correct

Answer: B. Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)

7. Identify the above picture.

A. Loop B. Meander C. Delta D. Oxbow lake

Answer: D. Oxbow lake

8. Consider the statements given below and choose the correct answer.

Statement I: India covers an area of 3.28 million sq.km.
Statement II: It is about 10% of the total world area.

A. Statement (I) is correct and (II) is incorrect
B. Statement (I) is incorrect and (II) is correct
C. Both (I) and (II) are incorrect
D. Both (I) and (II) are correct

Answer: A. Statement (I) is correct and (II) is incorrect

Very short answer type questions

1. Name the southernmost point of the Indian mainland.

Answer: The southernmost point of the country is Indira Point in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

2. What is the land area of India?

Answer: India covers a land area of 3,287,263 sq km.

3. Which are the three main physical regions of India?

Answer: The three main physical regions of India are:

i. The Himalayas and Karakoram mountains, the Himalayan foothills, and the Naga Hills.
ii. The plains of the Indus, Ganga and Brahmaputra rivers.
iii. The Deccan plateau.

4. Why is the ‘Indian subcontinent’ called so?

Answer: It is called “the Indian subcontinent” because of its isolation from the rest of Asia due to mountain ranges.

Short answer type questions

1. Write a note on the middle Himalayas.

Answer: Himachal, or the Middle Himalayas, lies to the south of the Himadri, extending over an average width of 50 km and about 370 to 4500 m high. The important ranges of Himachal are the Mahabharat, the Dhauladhar, and the Pir Panjal. The most popular hill stations in North India, namely Shimla, Dalhousie, Nainital, Darjeeling, and Dharamshala, are located in Himachal.

2. Define (i) Khadar (ii) Bangar (iii) Tarai and (iv) Bhabar.

Answer: (i) Khadar: Khadar is the younger alluvium deposit soil of the flood plains.

(ii) Bangar: Bangar is the older alluvium deposit.

(iii) Tarai: Tarai is a wet and marshy area having a thick forest and a variety of wildlife.

(iv) Bhabar: Bhabar is an 8 to 16 km wide belt that forms a pebbled bed which is parallel to the slope of the river bed.

3. Write about the western coastal plains.

Answer: Stretching from Kerala to Gujarat is the Western Coastal Plain, which is rather narrow except for the Gujarat part. This highly rugged and dissected coastal plain is called the Konkan Coast in the northern part. Drowned valleys formed due to some rise in sea levels are called estuaries. Such estuaries are formed by the rivers of the western coast. This area is a land of small fishing villages, coconut, palms and spice gardens. Many ancient ports dot the coastline.

Long answer type questions

1. The vast latitudinal and longitudinal extent of India is unique. Discuss.

Answer: From south to north, India’s mainland extends between 8° 4’N and 37° 6’N latitudes. It is located in the Northern Hemisphere. The Tropic of Cancer (23½°N) passes roughly through the middle of the country. From west to east, India extends between 68°7 ‘E and 97°25’E longitudes. It is located in the Eastern Hemisphere. On account of the great east-west (longitudinal) extension of approximately 29°, a time difference of 1 hour and 56 minutes would be expected between the eastern and western limits of the country. So sunrise in Arunachal Pradesh would take place two hours earlier than in Gujarat. To solve the problem 82°30’ E longitude has been accepted as the Standard Meridian. The local time along this longitude has been recognised internationally as the Indian Standard Time.

2. What is the Standard Meridian of India? What is its importance?

Answer: 82°30′ E longitude has been accepted as the Standard Meridian of India.

From our knowledge about longitude and time, we are already aware that for each 1° of longitude local time is ahead by 4 minutes if we move eastwards. On account of the great east-west (longitudinal) extension of approximately 29°, a time difference of 1 hour 56 minutes would be expected between the eastern and western limits of the country. So, sunrise at Arunachal Pradesh would take place two hours earlier than in Gujarat. To solve the problem 82°30′ E longitude has been accepted as the Standard Meridian.

3. What do you know about (i) the Northern Plains and (ii) the Deccan Plateau (iii) the Thar Desert

Answer: (i) The vast Northern plains lie between the Himalayas in the north and the stable tableland of the Peninsula in the south. The Northern Plains are formed by deposition by the three main river systems – the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra. The Northern Plains are broadly divided into the Indus river system in the west and the Ganga-Brahmaputra river system in the east.

(ii) The Deccan plateau has its southward extension from the Satpura, the Mahadeo and the Maikal ranges to the southern tip of the peninsula. The northwestern part of the plateau is mainly a region formed by lava flows. The Western Ghats form a boundary towards the west and stretch without any obstacles along the coast of the Arabian Sea.

(iii) The Thar Desert is in Rajasthan, covering 805 km in length and 485 km in width. The desert terrain is marked by rolling sandhills, among which are found scattered vegetation and rock outcroppings. The area receives sparse rainfall, averaging 127 to 254 mm annually. The temperature in the area can be as high as 52.8°C in July. Most of the people in the Thar Desert are engaged in pastoral activities and the hide and wool industries.

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