Minerals and Energy Resources: TBSE Class 10 Geography notes

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Get here the notes, questions, answers, textbook solutions, summary, additional/extras, and PDF of TBSE (Tripura Board) Class 10 (madhyamik) Social Science (Geography/Contemporary India II) Chapter “Minerals and Energy Resources.” However, the provided notes should only be treated as references, and the students are encouraged to make changes to them as they feel appropriate.

a miner mining underground, illustrating the chapter Minerals and Energy Resources


From tiny pins to gigantic ships and skyscrapers, minerals are a crucial part of our daily lives. They can be found in almost everything we use. With the aid of efficient refining techniques, these metals are extracted from minerals. The crust of the Earth is made up of rocks, which are collections of materials that are all the same. Inside rocks are minerals. Most rocks are made up of many different minerals in different amounts, but some rocks are made up of only one mineral. Even though more than 2000 minerals have been found, most rocks only contain a small number of the more common minerals. The term “ores,” refers to mixtures of any mineral and other elements, and it is where minerals are frequently found. For the ore to be economically extracted, the mineral concentration must be high enough.

The decomposition of surface rocks, sedimentary rocks, alluvial deposits, and ocean waters are just a few of the different ways that minerals can be found. In veins and lodes found in igneous and metamorphic rocks, significant metallic minerals like copper, zinc, tin, and lead are extracted. Due to extended periods of intense heat and pressure, sedimentary rocks have coal and some types of iron ore concentrated in them. On the other hand, the formation of gypsum, potash salt, and sodium salt is brought about by evaporation, especially in arid areas. While placer deposits are a rich source of minerals like platinum, tin, gold, and silver, bauxite is created when surface rocks break down. Even though minerals are abundant in ocean waters, most of them are too common to have a significant economic value. Even so, manganese nodules are common in ocean beds, and common salt, bromine, and magnesium are primarily derived from ocean waters.

Despite being unevenly distributed, India is fortunate to have abundant and diverse mineral resources. The majority of the coal, mica, metallic minerals, and non-metallic mineral reserves are found in peninsular rocks. Most of the petroleum deposits are found in sedimentary rocks in Gujarat and Assam, on the western and eastern flanks of the peninsula. Many non-ferrous minerals are found in Rajasthan’s rock systems, which are on the peninsula. Nearly all economic minerals are absent from the vast alluvial plains of northern India. These differences in mineral formation processes, times, and geological structures are largely to blame for these variations’ existence.

Three-fourths of the value of all metallic minerals produced in India is accounted for by ferrous minerals. India is endowed with abundant resources of iron ore, which is the foundation of industrial development. The finest iron ore, magnetite, has a content of iron that can reach 70%, and it is found in good quantities in India. In terms of consumption, hematite ore is the most significant source of industrial iron, but it contains slightly less iron (50–60%) than magnetite.

The Odisha-Jharkhand belt, Durg-Bastar-Chandrapur belt in Chhattisgarh and Maharashtra, Ballari-Chitradurga-Chikkamagaluru-Tumakuru belt in Karnataka, and Maharashtra-Goa belt are the four main iron ore belts in India. In the Mayurbhanj and Kendujhar districts of Odisha, as well as in the Singbhum district of Jharkhand, Badampahar mines have high-grade hematite ore. The Bailadila range of hills in Chhattisgarh’s Bastar district contains 14 deposits of extremely high-grade hematite iron ore, which are part of the Durg-Bastar-Chandrapur belt. The Kudremukh mines in Karnataka’s Western Ghats are one of the largest in the world, and they are part of the Ballari-Chitradurga-Chikkamagaluru-Tumakuru belt, which has significant iron ore reserves. The state of Goa and the Ratnagiri district of Maharashtra are both included in the Maharashtra-Goa belt. Although the iron ore there is not of very high quality, it is effectively exploited. The Marmagao port is used to export iron ore.

Iron-manganese alloys and steel are the two main products that use manganese. The production of one tonne of steel requires about 10 kg of manganese. Along with paints and insecticides, it is also used to make bleaching powder. One-third of India’s total production of manganese ores in 2000–01 came from Odisha, the nation’s largest producer of the mineral. Copper, bauxite, lead, zinc, and gold are just a few of the non-ferrous minerals that India has insufficient reserves of and produces insufficient amounts of. These minerals, however, are essential to many metallurgical, engineering, and electrical industries.

Although its reserves and production are insufficient, copper is essential to India. Electrical cables, electronics, and the chemical industries are where copper is most commonly used. Leading producers of copper include the districts of Singhbhum in Jharkhand, Rajasthan’s Khetri mines, and Madhya Pradesh’s Balaghat mines.

Alumina, which is made from a clay-like substance, is primarily obtained from bauxite, and aluminium is then produced from this. Rocks rich in aluminium silicates, such as bauxite, decompose to form deposits of bauxite. Aluminum is a vital metal because it combines the strength of metals like iron with extremely low density, excellent conductivity, and exceptional malleability. The Amarkantak plateau, the Maikal hills, and the plateau area of Bilaspur-Katni are where most of India’s bauxite deposits are located. With 34.97% of the nation’s total production of bauxite in 2009–10, Odisha is the largest producer in India. The largest bauxite deposits in the state are located in Koraput district and are known as the Panchpatmali deposits.

Because of its excellent dielectric strength, insulating qualities, low power loss factor, and resistance to high voltage, mica, a mineral that comes in a variety of colours and is made up of thin plates or leaves that are easily separated into thin sheets, is a crucial mineral in the electric and electronic industries. The northern edge of the Chota Nagpur plateau and the region around Ajmer are where the majority of India’s mica is produced, with the Nellore mica belt in Andhra Pradesh also playing a significant role. Another important mineral is limestone, which can be found in conjunction with rocks made of calcium carbonates or calcium and magnesium carbonates. Cement production and blast boiler smelting of iron ore both require limestone as a critical ingredient.

Mineral resources are limited and non-renewable, making mining a valuable but transient asset. It is essential to use our mineral resources in a planned and sustainable way because mining at greater depths raises costs. Our ability to use low-grade ores profitably and recycle metals using scrap metal and alternative materials must both be continually improved if we are to protect our mineral resources for the future. All activities require some form of energy, and both conventional and unconventional sources can be used to produce it.

While non-conventional energy sources include solar, wind, tidal, geothermal, biogas, and atomic energy, conventional energy sources include firewood, cattle dung cake, coal, petroleum, natural gas, and electricity. India’s energy needs are largely met by coal, which is the most accessible fossil fuel there. The majority of coal used in commercial applications is coal that has been deeply buried and exposed to high temperatures. Additionally, lignite, a low-grade brown coal used in the production of electricity, and metallurgical coal, a high-grade bituminous coal used in the smelting of iron in blast furnaces, are used. Jharia, Raniganj, Bokaro, the Damodar valley, the Godavari, Mahanadi, Son, and Wardha valleys all have coalfields, and Meghalaya, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, and Nagaland in the northeastern region have tertiary coal deposits.

The main energy sources in India are petroleum, natural gas, electricity, and nuclear energy. The primary energy source after coal is petroleum. It offers raw materials for a variety of manufacturing industries, fuel for heating and lighting, lubricants for machinery, and lubricants. In tertiary-aged rock formations, anticlines and fault traps are thought to be responsible for the majority of petroleum discoveries in India. Mumbai High, Assam, and Ankeleshwar are some of the important offshore fields in western India. Large natural gas reserves are also present in India; this clean energy source is used both as an energy source and a raw material in industry. Several regions, including the Krishna-Godavari basin, Mumbai High, the Gulf of Cambay, and the Andaman and Nicobar islands, have been found to have significant natural gas reserves.

Thermal and hydroelectric power are the main sources of electricity production. Indian thermal power plants number over 310. Nuclear energy is produced by changing the structure of atoms, and is used to produce electricity. Renewable energy sources, such as solar energy, wind energy, tide energy, biomass, and energy from waste materials, are becoming more and more important as a result of the rising costs of fossil fuels and the potential for their shortages. For the purpose of producing atomic or nuclear power, uranium and thorium are found in Jharkhand, the Aravalli mountains of Rajasthan, and the monazite sands of Kerala. India has an abundance of wind, water, sunlight, and biomass, making it possible to use these resources to generate electricity. For the development of these renewable energy sources, the nation has the most extensive programmes.

All economic sectors, including agriculture, industry, transportation, commerce, and housing, depend on the efficient use of energy resources. A sustainable path for energy development is urgently needed, though, as energy consumption in all forms has been steadily rising. Sustainable energy primarily consists of two things: energy efficiency and a greater reliance on renewable energy sources. As one of the least energy-efficient nations in the world right now, India needs to be cautious in how we use the finite amount of energy we have available.

Use of public transportation instead of private vehicles, turning off the electricity when not in use, the use of power-saving gadgets, and the use of unconventional energy sources are all ways that we, as concerned citizens, can help conserve energy. Solar, wind, hydropower, tidal, and geothermal energy are a few examples of renewable energy sources. The government has launched numerous programmes to encourage the use of renewable energy, which has enormous potential in India. In India, rooftop solar systems and solar power plants are installed in great numbers, making solar energy the most popular renewable energy source in the nation. Numerous wind power projects are being implemented in hilly and coastal areas, which is a sign of the growing popularity of wind energy.

India has a number of big and little hydroelectric power plants that produce hydro energy through the use of dams. Floodgate dams constructed across inlets are used to capture tidal energy, and India has several areas that are perfect for doing so, including the Gangetic delta in Sunderban, the Gulf of Khambhat, and the Gulf of Kuchchh. India has a number of hot springs that could be used to produce electricity using geothermal energy, which is a form of energy that is created by using heat from the Earth’s interior. The Parvati Valley near Manikarn in Himachal Pradesh and the Puga Valley in Ladakh are the two locations in India where experimental projects to harness geothermal energy have been established.

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Textual questions and answers

1. Multiple choice questions.

(i) Which one of the following minerals is formed by decomposition of rocks, leaving a residual mass of weathered material?

(a) coal
(b) bauxite
(c) gold
(d) zinc

Answer: (b) bauxite 

(ii) Koderma, in Jharkhand is the leading producer of which one of the following minerals?

(a) bauxite
(b) mica
(c) iron ore
(d) copper

Answer: (b) mica

(iii) Minerals are deposited and accumulated in the stratas of which of the following rocks?

(a) sedimentary rocks
(b) metamorphic rocks
(c) igneous rocks
(d) none of the above

Answer: (a) sedimentary rocks

(iv) Which one of the following minerals is contained in the Monazite sand?

(a) oil
(b) uranium
(c) thorium
(d) coal

Answer: (c) thorium

2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words.

(i) Distinguish between the following in not more than 30 words.

(a) ferrous and non-ferrous minerals

Answer: Ferrous minerals are minerals that contain iron, while non-ferrous minerals are minerals that do not contain iron.

(b) conventional and non-conventional sources of energy

Answer: Conventional sources of energy are sources that have been used for a long time, such as firewood, coal, petroleum, natural gas, and electricity.

(ii) What is a mineral?

Answer: A mineral is a naturally occurring, inorganic solid with a definite chemical composition and a crystalline structure. Minerals are typically formed through geological processes and are essential components of rocks and soils.

(iii) How are minerals formed in igneous and metamorphic rocks?

Answer: Minerals in igneous and metamorphic rocks are usually formed through the process of crystallization. This process involves the cooling and solidification of magma or lava as it rises towards the surface of the Earth. The cooling process causes the minerals to form distinct crystals with specific chemical compositions.

(iv) Why do we need to conserve mineral resources ?

Answer: We need to conserve mineral resources because they are finite and non-renewable. Mineral resources are extremely valuable but short-lived possessions, and continued extraction of ores leads to increasing costs as mineral extraction comes from greater depths along with decrease in quality. Therefore, a concerted effort has to be made in order to use our mineral resources in a planned and sustainable manner.

3. Answer the following questions in about 120 words.

(i) Describe the distribution of coal in India.

Answer: India has the fourth largest coal reserves in the world. Coal is mainly found in the states of Jharkhand, Odisha, Chhattisgarh, West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh, Telangana, and Maharashtra. Jharkhand has the largest coal reserves in India, followed by Odisha and Chhattisgarh. The North Eastern states of Assam, Meghalaya, and Nagaland also have significant coal reserves. Coal is also found in the Himalayan regions of Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh. In the South, coal is found in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and Tamil Nadu. The coal reserves in India are mostly located in the eastern and central parts of the country. Jharkhand, Odisha, and Chhattisgarh account for over 70% of the total coal reserves in India. These states are also the major producers of coal in the country.

(ii) Why do you think that solar energy has a bright future in India?

Answer: Given how much sunlight there is in India, solar energy has a promising future. India is a tropical nation with one of the highest solar radiation averages in the world, at 4 to 7 kWh/m2/day. India is therefore a great place to develop solar energy. Additionally, as time has gone on, the price of solar energy has been steadily declining, making it more accessible to consumers. Additionally, the Indian government has actively promoted solar energy use through a variety of incentives and subsidies, making it a desirable choice for investors. The Indian government has also established challenging goals for the production of solar energy. Additionally clean and renewable, solar energy doesn’t produce any greenhouse gases. It is therefore a desirable choice for the environment.

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