Moamoriya Rebellion: SEBA Class 9 History (Social Science)

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Here are the notes/solutions/answers to the questions for History (social science) chapter 3 The Moamoriya Rebellion of class 9 (HSLC) for students studying under the Board of Secondary Education, Assam (SEBA). These notes/answers, however, should only be used for references and modifications/changes can be made wherever possible.

INTRODUCTION: The Moamoriyas were a branch of the Moran tribe. Mayamara, a Vaishnava Sattra, was founded after the Sankar-Madhab period. The name Moamoriya is thought to be derived from the word Mayamara. Because the Satradhikurs of the Mayamara Sattra belonged to the Sudra caste, this Sattra was popular among many castes and tribes, including the Kacharis, Chutiyas, Ahoms, and Kaibarttas. The Mahantas’ power grew in tandem with the popularity of Mayamara Sattra. Swargadeo was the name given to the Ahom Kings. The Mahantas’ power grew in tandem with the popularity of Mayamara Sattra. Swargadeo was the name given to the Ahom Kings. They supported the Brahmanical Sattras and despised the Sudra Mayamara Sattra and its Mahantas and disciples. As a result, there was a conflict between the King and the Moamoriyas. Gradually, the Ahoms’ atrocities against the Mayamara Sattra and its disciples increased. During Surumpha Bhagaraja’s reign, the Satradhikar Guru Nityanandadeva was assassinated on royal orders. The assassination of Baikunthadeva Mahanta on the orders of Gadadhar Singha, the humiliation of Chaturbhujdeva Mahanta in the royal court of Rudra Singha, the compelling of the Moamoriya Mahanta to wear tilak made from the blood of sacrificed animals on the orders of Bor Roja Phuleswari during the reign of Siva Singha, and other atrocities all contributed to the outbreak of the Moamoriya Rebellion.

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Very short answer questions

1. What is Mayamara?

Answer: ‘Mayamara’ was the name of a Vaishnava Sattra.

2. What is Sattra?

Answer: Sattra means a religious and cultural organization that grew up to spread and preach the Neo-Vaishnavite religions preached by Sankardev and Madhavdev.

3. What is Songhoti?

Answer: Songhotis in Assam are the traditional and age-old centres that are related to the Ekasaranatradition of Vaishnavism.

4. During the reign of which Ahom King did the Moamoriya Rebellion begin?

Answer: The Moamoria Rebellion started in 1769, during the reign of Ahom King Lakshmi Singha.

5. During the reign of which Ahom King did the Moamoriya Rebellion conclude?

Answer: The Moamoria Rebellion ended in 1805 during the reign of King Kamaleswar Singha.

6. Which Ahom King is said to have adopted the title of Swargadeo/Swarganarayan?

Answer: Suhungmung is said to have first adopted the title of Swargadeo/Swarganarayan.

7. During the reign of Surampha Bhagaraja which Sattradhikar was murdered?

Answer: During the reign of Surampha Bhagaraja Satradhikar Guru Nityanandadeva was murdered.

8. Which Satradhikar was humiliated in the royal court of Rudra Singha?

Answer: Chaturbhujdeva Mahanta was humiliated in the royal court of Rudra Singha.

9. Who was the chief deity of the Ahoms?

Answer: Somdev was the chief deity of the Ahoms.

10. Which Satradhikar did Jaydhwaj Singha accept as his religious preceptor?

Answer: Jaydhwaj Singh accepted Satradhikar Niranjandev of Auniati Sattra as his religious preceptor.

11. Which Satradhikar did Rudra Singha accept as his religious preceptor?

Answer: The Ahom King Rudra Singha accepted the Satradhikar of Auniati Sattra, Keshabdev as his religious preceptor.

12. Who was Krishnaram Bhattacharya?

Answer: Krishnaram Bhattacharya was a Shakta Brahman Pandit.

13. During which Ahom King’s reign did Shaktism become very strong?

Answer: During the reign of Siva Singha Shaktism become very strong.

14. Who was Gagini?

Answer: Gagini was the son of Moamoriya Mahanta Ashtabhuj.

15. Who did the Moamoriyas first establish as King?

Answer: The Moamoriyas first established Ramakanta or Ramananda as King.

16. How long did Captain Welsh stay in Assam?

Answer: Captain Welsh stayed in Assam for two days.

17. Where was salt produced in Assam?

Answer: Salt was produced at Sadiya and Nagapahar in Assam.

18. Why were the common people of Assam unable to use salt?

Answer: Salt was a very expensive commodity and as such, the common people could not afford to use it.

Short/long questions

1. Who were the Moamoriyas? Can this rebellion be called a mass uprising?

Answer: The word Moamoriya appears to have derived from the word ‘Mayamara.’ A Vaishnava Sattra was known as ‘Mayamara.’ It was within the Songhoti kaal. People from the Moran tribe were the primary disciples of this Sattra.

Yes, it qualifies as a mass uprising. The Moamoriya rebellion was a pivotal socioeconomic and political event in Assam’s history. The rebellion that began during Swargadeo Laksmi Singha’s reign disrupted Assam’s political and social life for a long time. This rebellion disrupted the reigns of several Kings until the time of the Burmese invasion.

2. Analyse the political causes of the Moamoriya Rebellion.

Answer: The Moamoriyas were undeniably devoted to their Guru. The disciples were more than willing to give their lives if necessary. These Mayamara Sattra disciples never bowed their heads in front of anyone except their Guru. As a result, the Guru began to feel extremely powerful, even going so far as to compare himself to Ahom Swargadeo. The power struggle resulted in the assassination of Guru Nityanandadeva on royal orders. The Moamoriyas blamed the Ahom Monarchy for the murder and promised vengeance. Following the murder of Nityanandadeva, there were a number of other incidents that demonstrated royal repression. The Moamoriya Rebellion arose from the accumulation of insult and agony caused by a series of events.

3. Do you think the change in the religious policy of the Ahoms was a cause of the Moamoriya Rebellion? Discuss.

Answer: Yes, I believe the Ahoms’ religious policy contributed to the Moamoriya Rebellion. The policy of divide and rule implemented by King Rudra Singha to exacerbate differences between the Brahman and Sudra Sattras had clear consequences during the reign of Rudra Singha’s successor Siva Singha.

During Siva Singha’s reign, Queen Phuleswari, also known as ‘Bor Raja,’ rose to prominence. During this time, Shaktism had a chance to flourish. On royal orders, the Sudra Mahantas were suppressed. The Moamoriya Rebellion arose as a result of such tortures.

4. How far was the paik system responsible for the Moamoriya Rebellion? Give your own opinion.

Answer: The disciples of the Moamoriya Sattra were mostly tribal people and people from lower social classes. As a result, these people were forced to perform menial labour under the Ahoms’ Paik system. The Ahom state machinery fully exploited these people’s expertise while continuing to exploit them socially and economically. The Paik system also included the division of the Parks into two classes as a method of exploitation. This resulted in social inequity, which gave rise to conflict. This resulted in social inequity, which gave rise to conflict. The Moamoriya disciples propagated the myth that because the Ahom state’s economy was entirely dependent on them, the Ahoms would quickly reach an agreement with them in such a situation. However, they have decided to end the long saga of their exploitation by the Ahoms by insurgency. As a result, the paik system was critical to the rebellion.

5. Discuss the results of the Moamoriya Rebellion.

Answer: The results of the Moamoriya Rebellion were as follows:

i. Political results: The Ahom monarchy and the Ahom Kingdom were both completely destroyed. The English had begun the process of establishing a foothold in Assam by assisting the Ahom administrative mechanism.

ii. Socio-Economic results: The Moamoriya Rebellion had a negative impact on Assam’s economic and social situation. Famines became a common occurrence as a result of both sides burning and destroying the paddy fields.

iii. Creation of the Matak Kingdom: Purnananda Burhagohain and Sarbananda signed a treaty. The Matak Rajya was established in Bengmara (present-day Tinsukia) between the Brahmaputra and Dihing rivers, and Sarbananda was recognised as Borsenapati, a tributary ruler. He promised to pay the Ahom king a yearly tribute of ivory and muga silk.

6. Do you think the Moamoriya Rebellion was successful or unsuccessful? Give logic for your answer.

Answer: The Moamoriya Rebellion was not a success because the true goal of the rebellion was to dethrone the Ahom rulers and install their own rulers. The rebellion arose as a result of the evil activities of Ahom king, and the rebels desired a better life. While they were successful in their main goal of dethroning the Ahom kings, they were unable to bring peace to the common people. Rather, when they ascended to the throne, they fought for power amongst themselves. It turned out to be the primary cause of foreign invasions and the region’s loss of independence.

7. Under what circumstances did Captain Welsh come to Assam? Why did he leave his expedition incomplete and go back?

Answer: The Moamoriyas attacked Gaurinath Singha once more in 1786. When Gaurinath Singha fled to Gauhati from his capital, the rebels installed Bharat Singha as King. Following this, the Ahom Kingdom was shattered as a result of numerous revolts, both large and small. In order to put down the revolt, a helpless Gaurinath Singha begged British assistance. Captain Thomas Welsh led an army of the East India Company into Assam for the first time in 1792.

He returned home after abandoning the expedition due to Sir John Shore’s new policy. This was the non-interventionist policy. He wanted to strictly enforce the tills policy, so he ordered Welsh to return immediately.

8. Describe the role played by Captain Welsh in suppressing the Moamoriya Rebellion. How far was he successful?

Answer: Captain Welsh was instrumental in putting down the Moamoriya Rebellion. When Swargadeo Gaurinath Singha asked the English to save the common people from the Moamoriya Rebellion and the repeated atrocities of Bengal’s burkandazes, the Company government quickly agreed to send a military expedition. Captain Thomas Welsh led this expedition. The Swargadeo reclaimed Gauhati with the assistance of Captain Welsh. Bairagi Raja and his followers were apprehended. Darrang Raja and his burkandaze army were defeated as well. Haradutta Choudhury’s revolt was crushed, and he was reinstated as a tributary king. Welsh set out to Rangpur to solve the problems of the Ahom kingdom after suppressing these revolts and dealing with the burkandazes. On February 8, 1793, Gaurinath Singha and Captain Welsh signed a trade treaty. Welsh requested that the Governor General send six new company platoons after taking stock of the situation. The arrival of the New English force, led by Welsh, boosted the morale of the Assamese soldiers. The Moamoriyas were forced to flee Rangpur due to the combined assault of English and Assamese soldiers. Many Moamoriyas were assassinated. Raja Bharat Singha was also severely injured and only made it out alive. Rangpur was liberated from the clutches of the insurgents, and Gaurinath Singha entered the capital on March 21, 1794.

Captain Welsh was partially successful in suppressing the rebellion; however, he failed to completely eliminate the rebels and their spirit, as the uprising resumed as soon as he left. Rangpur was retaken by the Moamoriyas.

9. Discuss Captain Welsh’s Account of Assam.

Answer: Welsh describes the process of selecting the Ahom King and his powers in his Account. The five principal Ministers of the Ahom administrative mechanism, as well as their constant bickering for power, have been included in the Account. The Paik system has also been briefly mentioned. Welsh blamed the Ahom kingdom’s political impasse on Kirtichandra Borbarua’s dictatorship, the immoral denial of the throne to Mohanmala Gohain, the murder of the Moamoriya Mahanta, and competition for power among high officials and bureaucrats.

He wrote that large-scale trade between Assam and Bengal earned Assam a revenue of Rs. 90,000 per year. From his description, it is clear that salt was in short supply in Assam at the time. As a result, it was the most important imported commodity. Apart from grain, which was abundant in Assam, other products included mustard, sugarcane, ginger, indigo, areca nut and betel leaves, iron, lac, gold, and so on.

Short notes

1. Kirtichandra Barua

Answer: Kirtichandra was a follower of the Dihing Sattra, which was at odds with the Mayamara Sattra. He never passed up a chance to humiliate the Mayamara Mahanta. Nahor Khora Saikia and Ragha Moran, two Moran disciple leaders of Mayamara Sattra, once went to the royal palace with the annual tax, a herd of elephants. Kirtichandra, finding many flaws in the elephants brought for him, not only insulted the two men, but also flogged Ragha and cut off Nahor Khora’s ear. This marked the start of the Moamoriya Rebellion. Kirtichandra was later apprehended and imprisoned by the rebels.

2. Mayamara Sattra

Answer: The Moamoriyas were a branch of the Moran tribe. Because the Satradhikars of Mayamara Sattra belonged to the Sudra caste, the sattra was well-liked by people of all castes and tribes. The Mahantas’ power grew in tandem with the popularity of Mayamara Sattra. Swargadeo was the name given to the Ahom Kings. They supported the Brahmanical Sattras and despised the Sudra Mayamara Sattra and its Mahantas and disciples. As a result, there was conflict between the King and the Moamoriyas. Gradually, the Ahoms’ atrocities against the Mayamara Sattra and its disciples increased, culminating in the Moamoriya Rebellion.

3. Pumananda Burhagohain

Answer: After Ghanashyam Burhagohain died, his son, Lari Gohain, took over as Burhagohain. This person is known as Purnananda Burhagohain, and his courage, valour, and devotion to duty have always piqued the interest of historians. Burhagohain did his best to protect the rest of the Kingdom with a small army. For security reasons, he was forced to retreat all the way to Jorhat, where he later established the Ahom capital. Many people, unable to bear Moamoriya’s excesses, considered joining them in order to save themselves. However, the Burhagohain managed to prevent them from doing so. He trained the villagers in warfare and dispatched them to fight the Moamoriyas.

4. Kanri paik and Chamua paik

Answer: The division of the Parks into two classes was one of the Paik system’s methods of exploitation of the Moamoriyas. The first, which was the majority, was the Kanri Paik, and the second was the Chamua Paik. Despite being fewer in number, the Chamua Paiks held a higher status than the Kanri Paiks. The Chaniua paiks were exempted from menial labour in lieu of payment of land taxes. Then, for a variety of reasons, the number of Chamua paiks increased while the number of Kanri paiks decreased. As a result, the existing Kanri paiks were put under double the strain. This resulted in social inequity, which gave rise to conflict.

5. Trade treaty between Welsh and Gaurinath Singha

Answer: A Trade treaty was concluded between Gaurinath Singha and Captain Welsh on 8 February 1793. This treaty necessitated the domination of the Moamoriyas and the re-establishment of the Ahom rule. According to this treaty, the following conditions were laid:

(i) Tax of 10% was levied on any commodity imported into Assam from any English dominated region.
(ii) Tax of 10% was levied on any commodity exported from Assam to any English dominated region.
(iii) No tax was to be collected on grain and rice.
(iv) Two custom offices were set up in Gauhati and Kandahar for the collection of import and export duties.
(v) No other European traders were to trade in Assam without the permission of the English or the Ahom government.

6. Bor Raja Phuleswari

Answer: The queen, Phuleswari, held the title of Bor Raja, or chief king. Phuleswari minted coins in her and her husband’s joint names, using the phrase “Persian legend,” the “first kind in Assam.” Brahmins had an influence on Phuleswari. She had discovered shaktism. The Mayamara Mahanta was forced to wear a tilak made of the blood of sacrificed animals during the reign of Siva Singha, on the orders of Bor Raja Phuleswari. During this time, she rose to prominence. Shaktism was also given a chance to flourish.

7. Parbatiya Gosain

Answer: Swargadeo Rudra Singha had invited Krishnaram Bhattacharya, a Shakta Brahman Pandit from Nadiya in Bengal. Later, his son, Siva Singha, became a disciple of this Brahman and settled in Nilachal Hill. Krishnaram Bhattacharya and his successors were dubbed ‘Parbatiya Gosain’ from then on.

8. Sarbananda

Answer: Sarbananda was a Moamoriya leader in upper Assam who declared himself an independent ruler and issued coins in his honour. Following the death of Bharat Singha, the Moamoriyas revolted once more in Bengmara. They were led this time by Sarbananda Singha and assisted by the Singphos. Purnananda and Sarbananda later signed a treaty. The area between Brahmaputra and Dihing was christened Matak Rajya, a new independent kingdom under Sarbananda who agreed to pay yearly tribute, with Bengmara (present Tinsukia) as the centre. The Moamoriyas did not revolt against the Ahoms after this.

9. Bharat Singha

Answer: The Moamoriyas attacked Gaurinath Singha once more in 1786. When Gaurinath Singha fled to Gauhati from his capital, the rebels installed Bharat Singha as King. He was related to the Mahanta. Later, when the Moamoriyas were forced to flee Rangpur due to a joint assault by English and Assamese soldiers, and a large number of Moamoriyas were killed, Raja Bharat Singha was also badly injured and only managed to escape alive. When a section of the Moamoriyas allied with the Singphos and Khamtis revolted in the East, in Bengmara, in 1810, the royal army successfully suppressed them, and Bharat Singha was killed.

10. Rangpur city

Answer: Rangpur was one of the capitals of the Ahom kingdom, which was founded in 1707 by Swargadeo Rudra Singha. It is now a part of the town of Sibsagar. Captain Welsh’s account includes a description of the Ahom capital. He stated that the capital’s boundary was approximately 20 miles long and was secured by brick walls, but the walls were in disrepair. There was fertile agricultural land near the city. The majority of the land was owned by the King or high officials. Products were generally not sold in the market, and grain in particular was unable to be sold. The medium of exchange was salt and gold, and goods were very cheaply priced. The common people suffered from a lack of funds.

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