NBSE Class 10 Nagaland (Social Science) notes

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Here, you will find the notes for the of NBSE Class 10 Nagaland (Social Science) subject for students studying under the Nagaland Board. If you are looking for social science notes of NBSE class 10, get it here. However, the given notes/solutions should only be used for references and should be modified/changed according to needs. If you are looking for short answers and MCQ, get it here.

1. Write a short note on the climate of Nagaland.

Answer: Nagaland has a pleasant climate. The climate is generally cool in winter and pleasantly warm in summer especially in the interior places and higher hills. During the winter months, that is December, January, and February the temperature come down between 4oc to lo c. The average summer temperature is 22 degrees Celsius to27 degrees Celsius. The average annual rainfall for about 7 months from May to October is between 2000 mm and 2500 mm in the State. Nagaland enjoys sub-tropical type of climate.

According to the prevailing weather conditions, the year in Nagaland may be divided into four distinct seasons. They are – cold season (Winter), hot season (Pre-Monsoon), rainy season (Monsoon) and cool dry season (Retreating Monsoon). The cold season begins in December and continues until the end of February. March and April are the hot season months as this period is hot. The rainy season includes the months from May to September- The period of October and November is treated as the cool and dry season as this period is neither too hot nor too cold.

2. Write a short note on the geographical features of Nagaland.

Answer: Physically, the state of Nagaland is roughly triangular in shape, having an area of 16,579 sq. kms. It is one of the Northeastern states of India. Nagaland is bounded by the states of Arunachal Pradesh on the north, Manipur on the south, Myanmar (Burma) on the east and Assam on the west.

Geopolitically, Nagaland is a sensitive state as China lies close to it in the north, Bangladesh on the west with Myanmar alongside, Thailand on the east where the valley of Bangladesh, Myanmar, and Thailand merge together forming a common valley known as the ‘Golden Triangle’ which is located close on the heels of Nagaland. This valley serves as the central meeting point for these three nations with their respective smuggled goods of all kinds of merchandise.

Nagaland is a hilly mountainous state and its highest peak is Saramati (3840 metres). The plain area of the state is limited to Dimapur, Jalukie and adjoining areas with Assam comprising of only 80% of the total area of the State. Kohima, the capital of Nagaland is situated at l444 metres above sea level.

3. Write a short note on the transport and communication in Nagaland.

Answer: Before the British brought the Naga Hills into the fold of their administration, there was practically no road worth the name. It was only in 1876 that a few bridle-paths were constructed. The first transport service in Nagaland was inaugurated in June 1965 on the Kohima-Dimapur route. Today, the Nagaland State Transport operates on 81 routes covering 23,2l4kms. Two State Highways i.e., NH 29 and NH 61 connect the state with other parts of the country. Dimapur is the only railhead in the state which is connected by railways. Dimapur Railway station connected to Guwahati which is the gateway to the northeastern part of India. Nagaland has a railway length of only 7.98 miles (12.84km) in Dimapur.

The only aerodrome in Nagaland is at Dimapur. The Dimapur Airport of Nagaland is located at a distance of 5 kilometres from the centre of the Dimapur town and 74 kilometres from Kohima, the capital of Nagaland. It is a public Airpon and is operated by the Airport Authority of India.

4. Write a short note on the agriculture in Nagaland.

Answer: Ninety per cent of the total population of Nagaland live in rural areas. The rural people are mainly engaged in agriculture which is the major source of the state income. The two forms of cultivation practised by the people of Nagaland are – terrace and Jhum cultivation.

Terrace Cultivation: This is a form of cultivation practised in the southern part of Nagaland mainly by the Angami and Chakhesang Nagas. Under this system, a piece of land is made into flat plots. The field is prepared in many plots of flat land and the sides of each flat piece of land are raised above the land in order to retain water. When the field is ready, paddy plants are taken out from the seedbed and are planted in this field. The field is ready for harvesting in October-November.

Jhum Cultivation: Another form of cultivation in Nagaland is jhum which mean shifting cultivation. Under this form of cultivation, the field is cultivated for one or even two to three years also, if it is sufficiently fertile. Then it is kept fallow for the next seven to ten years depending on the fertility of the land. After that period the same land is cultivated again. This type of cultivation in the rotation is called jhum.

5. Write a short note on the rivers of Nagaland.

Answer: The rivers of Nagaland flow either into the Brahmaputra in the west in Assam or into the Chindwin in the east in Myanmar. No rivers flow directly into the sea. Some of the rivers that flow into the Brahmaputra are the Dhansiri river, the Doyang, the Tsurang, the Milak, the Dikhu, the Tiru, and the Tizit. Some of the rivers that flow into Chindwin are the Zungki (the biggest tributary of Tizu river), Likimro (another tributary of the Tizu river and has its source at the Saramati mountain), and the Lanye.

The Doyang is the biggest river of Nagaland and is formed by two rivers that run parallel in the upper part of Doyang-the Dzuu and the Sidzii rivers. Before it emerges out of Nagaland, the Doyang is joined by two tributaries- the Chubi and the Chudi river. The Chubi river drains the south-west area of Mokokchung district and flows in a southerly direction to the Doyang. The Chudi river drains almost the whole of the Rengma area and flows northwards into the Doyang.

6. Write a short note on the mountains of Nagaland.

Answer: The mountain system in Nagaland is an offshoot of the Himalayan mountain system. The mountain system can be classified into four distinct ranges:-

I. The low mountain range: This mountain range runs along the Assam-Nagaland border and is composed of rather low hills of altitude less than 1000m. This range starts from Jalukie in Peren.

II. The Middle mountain range: This mountain system consists of many ranges and some small lateral offshoots which run in an east-west direction. It is covered with thick forests and forms the source of many perennial streams and rivers of Nagaland.

III. The Patkai mountain range: This mountain system forms the international boundary between India and Myanmar. The highest peak of this range is Saramati which is 12000 ft in height.

IV. The Barail mountain range: This mountain range runs in an East-West direction and becomes progressively lower from east to west. This mountain system extends from Nagaland to Manipur and from Manipur to Meghalaya.

7. Write a short note on the flora and fauna of Nagaland.

AnswerFLORA: There are more varieties of plants in the mountain ranges of Nagaland than in any other part of the world. Nagaland is botanically one of the richest spots in the world. Nagaland’s climatic conditions range from the alpine in the higher reaches of its mountains to moist, hot tropical conditions in the foothills adjoining the plains of Assam. There are bamboo species not bigger than the thumb, then there are species of bamboo (D. Gigantium) so big that several strong men are required to lift even a single piece. An interesting aspect of the flora of Nagaland is the abundance of edible wild plants and fruits. The list of wild medicinal plants also runs into several hundred. Chalmugra, Ginseng are some of the medicinal plants. The tallest Rhododendron in the world is found in Mt. Japfu.

FAUNA: In Nagaland at any time of the year, there are some plants flowering or bearing fruit. So the animals and the birds find their food throughout the year. Being mountainous, there are only a few lakes and wetlands in Nagaland and hence water birds and water animals are not very abundant but some 80 different kinds of fish have been identified in Nagaland. Other species found in Nagaland are monitor lizards, various types of worms and insects, etc. In Dzukou, elephants are permanently found at elevations of 2500 m. Dziikou is perhaps the only place in the world where the rare species of mountain bird, the Tragopan (Tragopan Blythe) and the tropical elephant live side by side in mountainous alpine conditions.

8. Write a short note on the industries of Nagaland.

Answer: Nagaland lags behind in industrial progress. However, after the formation of Naga Hills Tuensang Area (NHTA) in 1957, there has been an effort for all-round development and setting up of industries began. Since then, some small scale industries like Weaving, Handicraft, Blacksmithy, Carpentry, Fabrication, Motor Workshop, Tyre Retreading, Rice Huller, Oil Mill, Printing & Binding, Candle Making, Tailoring, etc. gradually developed. Yet Nagaland is still in its infancy in the field of industries.

Some of the important industries are:

COTTAGE INDUSTRIES: This includes weaving, basket making, blacksmithy, carpentry, pottery, wood carvings as well as different bamboo works.

ORGANISED INDUSTRIES: Nagaland has also a number of organized industries and plants. This includes Nagaland Pulp and Paper Company (NPPC), M/s Nagaland Forest Products Limited (NFP), M/s Nagaland MiniTool Room & Training Centre, Cement Plant at Wazeho.

OTHER IMPORTANT MINERAL BASED INDUSTRIES: One of Nagaland’s most important mineral resources is petroleum oil and natural gas. Besides cottage and organized industries, the state has a few other mineral-based industries. Some of these are industries related to oil and natural gas production and coal exploration/deposits.

9. Write a short note on the cottage industries of Nagaland.

Answer: Before and during the British rule in the 5th century, Nagaland had some indigenous household/cottage-level activities for making tools and other agricultural implements. However, Nagaland remains in its infancy when it comes to industries. Below are some common cottage industries found in Nagaland. 

Weaving: Weaving is extremely common and can be found in almost every home. The traditional weaving method is known as Loin-Loom, and it can be found in every house in the village. Shawls, Mekhelas, and shoulder bags are among the most popular handloom products.

Basket Making: The majority of Naga baskets are made of bamboo. Cane is also used to make some types of baskets. Baskets can be used to transport paddy, firewood, water cans, and other household items from the field to the house or from one location to another.

Black Smithy: A few blacksmiths can be found in every Naga village, and they make daos, spades, hoes, scrapers, spears, axes, knives, and so on. The smiths work with rusted scraps of iron and steel that have been heated and refined.

Carpentry: Every village has self-trained carpenters who are frequently involved in the construction of modern-style houses. Carpentry is a subject taught in schools to students. Men do the majority of carpentry work.

Pottery: During the pot-making process, lumps of clay dug from a riverbank or damp earth are first dried in the sun for a few days until they become a little hard. The clay is then powdered and dampened with water. The work is done by skilled workers, especially during the moulding process. The lump is burned in the fire after it has been moulded into the desired and final shape.

Wood Carving: Because cultural practices differ among tribes, no two tribes carve the same motif, even though the carvings are similar. Wood carving is mostly done by men using improvised tools.

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