Here you will find all the questions, solutions, answers, and notes of chapter 14 Outcomes of Democracy of Social Science for class 10 students studying under Nagaland Board of School Education (NBSE). However, the study materials should be used only for references and nothing more. The notes can be modified/changed according to needs.
INTRODUCTION: We have deep faith, a great interest and a fascination for democracy. People consider it as the best alternative vis-a-vis monarchy or dictatorship or one-party rule. But they are not satisfied with its working. They prefer democracy for moral reasons, not for prudential reasons. Many of us blame democracy for all the ills and problems in our society. India and the U.S are the two largest democracies but they are quite different in terms of per capita income, literacy level, health indicators, etc. But there are certain things that we expect from all democracies.
We are led to believe that democracy is the panacea for all socio-economic and political problems. Therefore, if some of our great expectations are not met, we jump to the conclusion that democracy is not a worthy system of government. We obviously forget the fact that democracy is just a form of government. It can simply create a conducive environment for socio-economic development. The citizens’ role is to take advantage of the conditions and achieve these goals. Thus, democracy is one of the best means, not an end in itself, to achieve our goals as an individual, society and nation.
I. Multiple Choice Questions
1. Which regime usually develops a procedure to conduct the social competition and reduce the possibility of social tension?
Answer: (a) Democratic regime
4. What kinds of equality are found in all democracies?
Answer: (c) Political equality
II. Very Short Answer Questions
1. What should be the most basic outcome of democracy?
Answer: The basic outcome of democracy is that sovereignty lies with the people.
2. Which type of government has a high degree of economic inequalities?
Answer: Democratic form of government has a high degree of economic inequalities.
III. Short Answer Questions
1. What is transparency?
Answer: A citizen has the right and the means to examine the process of decision making. This is called transparency.
2. Which provision of the Indian Constitution grants equal status to all citizens?
Answer: Equality before law for all and provision of equal opportunities to all of the Indian Constitution grants equal status to all citizens.
4. Which aspect of dictatorship is better than democracy?
Answer: The aspect of dictatorship that is better than democracy is that dictatorial regimes have had a slightly better record of economic growth and they are more efficient.
IV. Long Answer Questions
1. How does democracy produce an accountable, responsive and legitimate government?
Answer: Democracy produces an accountable, responsive and legitimate government in the following ways:
i. The basic premise of democracy is that sovereignty lies with the people. They elect their representatives to rule on their behalf. Therefore, the representatives should be accountable to the people.
ii. A citizen has the right and the means to examine the process of decision making. This is called transparency.
iii. For a democracy, the interests and welfare of the people are supreme. Thus, it is correct to expect democracy to produce a government that follows procedures and is accountable to the citizens.
iv. In a democracy, decision making is based on deliberations and negotiations that follow certain norms and procedures.
v. There are regular, free and fair elections; open public debate on major policies and legislation.
vi. A democratic government is essentially a legitimate government. It is backed by people’s sanction to rule.
2. “Democracy is the better form of government.” Support the statement with three arguments.
Answer: We generally agree that democracy was better because of the following reasons :
i. It promotes equality in society and enhances the dignity of citizens.
ii. It improves the quality of decision making.
iii. It provides scope and mechanism for the resolution of social conflicts.
5. Explain the factors that sustain democracy in India.
Answer: There are several factors that sustain democracy in India:
i. Indian democracy successfully balances the principles of centralisation and federalism.
ii. There is a horizontal distribution of power among the three organs of government – legislature, executive and judiciary.
iii. There is a vertical distribution of power among the centre, states and local self-governments.
iv. We have an independent and integrated judicial system that acts as the guardian of the Constitution.
v. The Directive Principles act as a guide and help in the formulation of policies for the welfare and wellbeing of citizens.
vi. Though decision-making takes time, this reduces the chance of rash or irresponsible decisions.
Additional/extra questions and answers/solutions
1. What are the world’s two largest democratic countries?
Answer: India and the United States of America are the world’s two largest democratic countries.
2. Give reasons why democracy is widely regarded as the superior form of government.
Answer: Democracy is widely regarded as the superior form of government because of the following reasons:
i. It promotes social equality and raises citizens’ dignity.
ii. It raises the standard of decision-making.
iii. It establishes a framework and process for resolving social issues.
iv. It provides enough room for error correction.
15. What is a Bi-Party system? Mention its advantages.
Answer: A Bi-Party system is one in which the constitution specifies only two political parties. The following are the benefits of a two-party system.i. It ensures a strong and stable government because one party has an absolute majority and the other serves as an opposition party.
ii. This system provides voters with a clear idea and an option to select one of two parties. It simplifies the decision-making process for voters.
iii. The formation of a government under a Bi-Party system is simple and straightforward. The issue of proving the majority on the House floor does not arise as the winning party always has the majority.
iv. Because there is no point in forming a coalition government in this system, there is no risk of a hanging government or a constitutional crisis.
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