Get here the notes, questions, answers, textbook solutions, summary, extras, and PDF of TBSE (Tripura Board) Class 10 Social Science (Political Science/Democratic Politics II) Chapter 1 “Power-Sharing.” However, the provided notes should only be treated as references, and the students are encouraged to make changes to them as they feel appropriate.
The chapter compares and contrasts the racial and linguistic diversity of Belgium and Sri Lanka, highlighting potential conflicts between various communities. Tensions between the two communities in Belgium resulted from the Dutch-speaking population’s resentment of the French-speaking population’s wealth and power. The Tamil-speaking minority was oppressed by the majority Sinhala in Sri Lanka, which resulted in a protracted and bloody conflict. The chapter makes the argument that these conflicts can develop when one group tries to rule over another based on their numerical superiority, and that if these tensions are not resolved, division or violent conflict may happen.
The Sinhala community in Sri Lanka sought to establish dominance in the government after the country attained independence in 1948 by passing laws that declared Sinhala supremacy. Due to the alienation and discrimination experienced by the Tamils in Sri Lanka as a result of these actions, political organisations were created to call for autonomy and the recognition of Tamil as an official language. In response to the government’s repeated denials of their demands, organisations in the north and east advocating for a separate Tamil Eelam state were formed. Eventually, the mistrust between the two communities erupted into a civil war that left a large number of people homeless and violent. Despite the nation’s prior stellar record of development in the fields of education and health, this conflict has had a devastating impact on its social, cultural, and economic life.
The examples of Belgium and Sri Lanka are used in the chapter to illustrate two different approaches to power sharing in democracies. An example of a nation where a majority community attempted to impose its dominance over others is Sri Lanka, which resulted in civil unrest and raised the possibility of the country being divided along linguistic lines. On the other hand, Belgium acknowledged the existence of regional variations and cultural diversity and came up with a creative solution that would allow everyone to live together in the same nation. The Belgian model, which shared authority between the federal, state, and local governments, contributed to preventing civil unrest between the two main communities.
The chapter makes the case that having equal access to power is preferable for both prudential and moral reasons. Power sharing will produce better results, according to prudential arguments, while sharing power itself is valuable, according to moral arguments. Conflict between social groups, which can result in violence and political instability, is made less likely with the sharing of power. Power sharing is also fundamental to democracy because every democratic rule involves sharing authority with those who will be impacted by it and will have to live with its consequences.
The idea of power sharing has developed as a result of democracy’s expansion, which emphasises how power should be shared among citizens. Power sharing in contemporary democracies can take many different shapes, including horizontal power sharing among various governmental agencies, vertical power sharing among various tiers of government, power sharing among various social groups, and power sharing among political parties and interest groups. The shared power principle is essential to ensuring that various groups and viewpoints are represented in government and that no group or person has unrestricted power.
Textual questions and answers
1. What are the different forms of power sharing in modern democracies? Give an example of each of these.
Answer:The forms of power sharing in modern democracies include horizontal distribution of power, which allows different organs of government placed at the same level to exercise different powers, and power sharing among different organs of government, such as the legislature, executive and judiciary. An example of horizontal distribution of power would be the separation of powers between the executive, legislative and judicial branches of government. An example of power sharing among different organs of government would be the checks and balances system in the United States, which allows each branch of government to limit the power of the other branches.
2. State one prudential reason and one moral reason for power sharing with an example from the Indian context.
Answer: A prudential reason for power sharing is that it helps to ensure the stability of political order, as it prevents any one group from having too much power. This can be seen in India, where power is shared between the federal government and the state governments. A moral reason for power sharing is that it allows citizens to have a say in how they are governed, which is an important part of democracy. In India, this is seen in the way that power is shared between the central government and the various state governments.
5. Read the following passage and pick out any one of the prudential reasons for power sharing offered in this.
“We need to give more power to the panchayats to realise the dream of Mahatma Gandhi and the hopes of the makers of our Constitution. Panchayati Raj establishes true democracy. It restores power to the only place where power belongs in a democracy – in the hands of the people. Giving power to Panchayats is also a way to reduce corruption and increase administrative efficiency. When people participate in the planning and implementation of developmental schemes, they would naturally exercise greater control over these schemes. This would eliminate the corrupt middlemen. Thus, Panchayati Raj will strengthen the foundations of our democracy.”
Answer: One of the prudential reasons for power sharing offered in this passage is that it can reduce corruption and increase administrative efficiency. This is because when people participate in the planning and implementation of developmental schemes, they would naturally exercise greater control over these schemes. This would eliminate the corrupt middlemen, thus strengthening the foundations of democracy.
6. Different arguments are usually put forth in favour of and against power sharing. Identify those which are in favour of power sharing and select the answer using the codes given below? Power sharing:
A. reduces conflict among different communities
B. decreases the possibility of arbitrariness
C. delays decision making process
D. accommodates diversities
E. increases instability and divisiveness
F. promotes people’s participation in government
G. undermines the unity of a country
Answer: (a) A B D F
7. Consider the following statements about power sharing arrangements in Belgium and Sri Lanka.
A. In Belgium, the Dutch-speaking majority people tried to impose their domination on the minority French-speaking community.
B. In Sri Lanka, the policies of the government sought to ensure the dominance of the Sinhala-speaking majority.
C. The Tamils in Sri Lanka demanded a federal arrangement of power sharing to protect their culture, language and equality of opportunity in education and jobs.
D. The transformation of Belgium from unitary government to a federal one prevented a possible division of the country on linguistic lines.
Which of the statements given above are correct?
Answer: (d) B, C and D
8. Match List I (forms of power sharing) with List II (forms of government) and select the correct answer using the codes given below in the lists:
|1. Power shared among different organs of government
|A. Community government
|2. Power shared among governments at different levels
|B. Separation of powers
|3. Power shared by different social groups
|C. Coalition government
|4. Power shared by two or more political parties
|D. Federal government
Answer: 1-B, 2-D, 3-A, 4-C
9. Consider the following two statements on power sharing and select the answer using the codes given below:
A. Power sharing is good for democracy.
B. It helps to reduce the possibility of conflict between social groups.
Which of these statements are true and false?
(a) A is true but B is false
(b) Both A and B are true
(c) Both A and B are false
(d) A is false but B is true
Answer: (b) Both A and B are true.
Additional/extra questions and answers/solutions
1. What is the ethnic composition of Belgium?
Answer: The ethnic composition of Belgium is complex. 59 percent of the population in the Flemish region speaks Dutch, 40 percent in the Wallonia region speaks French, and 1 percent speaks German. In the capital city Brussels, 80 percent speak French and 20 percent speak Dutch.
13. What is power sharing?
Answer: Power sharing according to the text involves sharing power with those affected by its exercise and who have to live with its effects, and involves consultation and participation of citizens in how they are governed.
Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs)
1. What is the primary language spoken in the Flemish region of Belgium?
Answer: A. Dutch
10. The competition among political parties in a democracy is an example of
A. Direct Sharing
B. Political Competition
C. Interest Group Power
D. Ideological Diversity
Answer: B. Political Competition
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