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Resources: NBSE Class 10 Social Science chapter 5 notes

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Get here the notes/solutions/extras of NBSE Class 10 Social Science Chapter 5 Resources. However, the study materials should be used only for references and nothing more. The notes can be modified/changed according to needs.


Resources are all elements of the environment that are necessary or useful for survival on Earth. Resources are classified into renewable (like solar, wind, water, and forests) and non-renewable (like minerals, fossil fuels). The sustainable use of resources for the present without compromising future needs is called resource conservation.

Land Resources: The uppermost layer of the Earth’s crust is soil, formed over millions of years from the weathering of rocks. The major soil types in India are alluvial, black, red, and yellow, laterite, arid, and forest soils. Land degradation due to deforestation, overgrazing, mining, etc. is a major issue. Measures like afforestation, controlled grazing, shelterbelts, and contour ploughing help conserve soil.

Water Resources: Water is essential for life, and its renewal through the hydrological cycle makes it a renewable resource. However, uneven distribution, excessive use, and pollution are causing water scarcity issues. Integrated water resource management through multipurpose river valley projects (like Damodar Valley, Bhakra Nangal) aimed at irrigation, hydropower, flood control, etc. There is opposition to large dams due to displacement of local communities and environmental impacts. Rainwater harvesting is an environmentally sustainable alternative.

Mineral Resources: Minerals are naturally occurring inorganic solids with a definite chemical composition. They are classified as metallic (ferrous like iron, non-ferrous like copper) and non-metallic (like mica). India has fairly rich and varied mineral reserves, with concentrations of iron ore, coal, oil, natural gas, etc. in different regions. However, minerals are finite and non-renewable, so conservation through sustainable mining, recycling, and the use of substitutes is crucial.

The uneven distribution of resources in India requires planning and judicious utilisation through resource mapping, developing technology, setting up institutions, and matching development plans. Historical inequalities in resource access and control have led to conflicts and resource depletion in many regions.

Resource conservation has become a global concern to prevent further degradation and ensure their continuation for future generations. This involves reducing overexploitation, recycling/reuse, developing sustainable alternatives, and creating awareness. Only through responsible and balanced use can we meet our needs while preserving the planet’s self-renewal capacity.

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Textual questions and answers

Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs)

1. Mr. Ayer wants to grow cashew nuts but is confused about which soil will be most suitable for cultivating this crop. Considering his needs, which soil type should Mr. Ayer opt for? 

(a) Alluvial soil (b) Black soil (c) Arid soil (d) Red Laterite soil 

Answer: d. Red Laterite soil 

2. Farmers in a region are looking to enhance their crop yields by practising effective crop rotation. Which of the following benefits is a key reason for implementing crop rotation? 

(a) Increasing soil erosion (b) Minimizing pest and disease buildup (c) Reducing the need for irrigation (d) Promoting monoculture farming 

Answer: b. Minimising pest and disease buildup 

3. What is land used for grazing cattle and livestock known as? 

(a) Fallow (b) Pasture (c) Barren (d) Sown 

Answer: b. Pasture 

4. Water becomes a renewable and rechargeable resource due to which of the following reasons: 

(a) Water table (b) Hydrological cycle (c) Seas and oceans (d) Surface run off 

Answer: b. Hydrological cycle 

5. According to the late 19th-century usage of the term ‘conservation’, what was the primary focus of management in relation to natural resources? 

(a) Maximizing extraction of non-renewable resources. (b) Ensuring economic profitability of resource utilization. (c) Preserving the Earth’s capacity for self-renewal. (d) Prioritizing the preservation of wilderness areas. 

Answer: c. Preserving the Earth’s capacity for self-renewal. 

6. Read the following statements – Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Choose one of the correct alternatives given below. 

Assertion (A): Unregulated deforestation can contribute significantly to land degradation.
Reason (R): Trees play a crucial role in stabilizing soil, preventing erosion, and maintaining ecological balance. 

(a) Both the Assertion (A) and Reason (R) are true and the Reason is a correct explanation of the Assertion. (b) Both the Assertion and Reason are true but the Reason is NOT a correct explanation of the Assertion. (c) The Assertion is true but the Reason is false. (d) The Assertion is false but the Reason is true 

Answer: a. Both the Assertion (A) and Reason (R) are true and the Reason is a correct explanation of the Assertion. 

Very Short Answer Questions

1. What is a resource? 

Answer: Everything on earth that is useful and necessary for man’s existence on this planet is referred to as a resource.

2. What is soil erosion? 

Answer: The removal of topsoil by running water and wind is known as soil erosion.

3. What is a spillway or weir?

Answer: An important part of most dams is the weir, or spillway. It is through this or over which water flows continuously or intermittently.

4. What are multipurpose projects? 

Answer: Dams are now referred to as multi-purpose projects as the uses of the impounded water are integrated with one another.

5. Define the term ‘mineral’.

Answer: A mineral is a naturally occurring solid having a crystal structure and a definite chemical composition.

Short Answer Questions

1. Why is land a very important resource?

Answer: Land is a very important resource. Land all over the world supports natural vegetation, wildlife, human life, economic activities, communication, and transport systems. Hence, land is of great significance for all nations.

2. What is a dam?

Answer: A dam is a reservoir, lake, or impoundment created by a barrier built across the flowing water. This barrier obstructs, retards, or directs the flow of water.

3. Define sheet erosion.

Answer: Sometimes, during heavy rainfall, the volume of run-off is very high. If the topsoil is not protected by sufficient plant cover, it is washed away by the force of surface run-off. This is known as sheet erosion.

4. Differentiate between ferrous minerals and non-ferrous minerals.

Answer: Ferrous minerals are very important for the development of metallurgical industries as they contain iron. Ferrous minerals cover three fourths of the total production. India produces enough ferrous minerals to satisfy domestic demands and also enough for export. 

Non-ferrous minerals that contain metals other than iron. These minerals, which include copper, bauxite, gold, zinc, and lead, have a very important role to play in the metallurgical, engineering, and electrical industries. The reserves of non-ferrous minerals in India are not very satisfactory. 

Long Answer Questions

1. Briefly explain the causes of soil erosion.

Answer: Soil erosion is caused by both physical and human factors. The physical factors include the slope of the land, the intensity of rainfall, and the velocity of the wind. The human factors that contribute to soil erosion are deforestation, overgrazing, overuse of chemical fertilisers, overirrigation, mining, and unscientific farming methods.

2. What is rainwater harvesting? State the benefits of rainwater harvesting.

Answer: Rainwater harvesting is a method of utilising rainwater for domestic and agricultural use. Rainwater harvesting is done for two reasons: 

i. Storing rainwater in containers above or below the ground.
ii. Water is charged into the aquifer for withdrawal later.

Rainwater harvesting increases water availability; checks the declining water table; is environmentally friendly; improves the quality of groundwater through the dilution of fluoride, nitrate, and salinity; prevents soil erosion and flooding, especially in urban areas.

3. What is resource planning? Why is it important?

Answer: Resource planning is the technique of a balanced utilisation of resources. Resources are unevenly distributed and limited all over the world. Resource planning is required for proper use and utilisation of resources, as overuse and exploitation of resources have created many problems.

4. Do you think conservation of resources is necessary? Why/Why not?

Answer: Yes, I do think that conservation of resources is necessary as resources are essential for sustenance as well as for development. But overexploitation and unplanned consumption of resources are leading to their depletion. This has socio-economic and environmental consequences. 

These problems can be tackled by adopting resource conservation as a means to manage and save resources for a better future. Conservation of resources means using resources efficiently that are needed now without harming future prospects.

5. List the different types of soil in India. Discuss any one type of soil.

Answer: The different types of soil in India are: (a) alluvial soils; (b) black soils; (c) red and yellow soils; (d) laterite soils; (e) arid soil; and (f) forest soil.

Alluvial soil: Alluvial soil forms the bulk of soils in India. They are found mainly in the river valleys of the Northern Plains and are very fertile. These soils contain an adequate proportion of potash, phosphoric acid, and lime, which are best for the cultivation of sugarcane, paddy, wheat, and other cereal and pulse crops.

6. Water is available in abundance in India, even though scarcity of water is experienced in major parts of the country. Discuss why rainwater harvesting should be adopted.

Answer: Water availability in India presents a paradox of abundance alongside scarcity. Despite India receiving substantial annual rainfall, many regions experience water shortages.

Rainwater harvesting refers to the collection and storage of rainwater for reuse before it reaches the ground. Rainwater harvesting should be adopted because of the following reasons.

Augmenting Water Supply: It can supplement the main water supply, reducing dependence on traditional sources such as rivers and groundwater.

Mitigating Groundwater Depletion: By capturing rainwater and allowing it to percolate into the ground, it helps in recharging aquifers.

Enhancing Water Security: It provides a localised source of water, increasing the resilience of communities to periodic droughts and water scarcity.

7. Why should we conserve our mineral resources? Suggest measures to conserve mineral resources.

Answer: Mineral resources can be said to be finite and non-renewable. Hence, we must remember that, though our country is rich in mineral deposits, these resources are short-lived. The extraction of these ores through the process of mining will soon become difficult and very expensive because these minerals have to be mined from greater depths every time. This increases the time and cost of mining, and once these resources are used up, they cannot be replaced.

Certain measures to be adopted for the conservation of minerals are:

  • use of minerals in a planned and sustainable manner.
  • evolving of improved technology to use low grade ore at a low cost.
  • recycling of metals.
  • using substitutes and scrap metals.

Extra MCQs

1. Which of the following is NOT considered a resource? 

A. Water B. Air C. Land D. Garbage 

Answer: D. Garbage 

2. What does the term ‘conservation’ primarily refer to? 

A. Preserving resources only for future generations B. Managing resources for efficient utilization C. Prohibiting the use of resources completely D. Maximizing extraction of non-renewable resources 

Answer: B. Managing resources for efficient utilization 

3. Which of the following is NOT a factor influencing soil formation? 

A. Topography B. Climate C. Vegetation D. Mining 

Answer: D. Mining 

4. What is the process of planting foliage in forest undergrowth areas called? 

A. Afforestation B. Reforestation C. Deforestation D. Overgrazing 

Answer: A. Afforestation 

5. Which type of soil is formed due to weathering of crystalline igneous rocks in areas of low rainfall? 

A. Alluvial soil B. Black soil C. Red and yellow soil D. Laterite soil 

Answer: C. Red and yellow soil 

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58. Which of the following is a characteristic of arid soil? 

A. High fertility B. High humus content  C. Low water retention capacity D. Sandy in texture

Answer: D. Sandy in texture 

Extra questions and answers

1. What are resources? 

Answer: All elements of the environment necessary or useful for survival on earth are considered resources. 

2. How are resources classified based on their origin? 

Answer: Resources are classified into two categories based on their origin – biotic (Human beings, plants, animals) and abiotic (Land, air, water). 

3. Explain the classification of resources based on their exhaustibility. 

Answer: On the basis of exhaustibility, resources can be classified into: Renewable (Solar and wind energy) and non-renewable (Minerals and fossil fuels) 

Renewable resources are those that can be reproduced. For example, continuous flow resources like wind and water are renewable. Non-renewable resources are those that take millions of years to form. For example, minerals and fossil fuels are non-renewable resources. 

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35. What is land use pattern? What factors determine it? 

Answer: Land use pattern in India refers to the use of land for various purposes such as agriculture, grazing, forests, human settlements, etc. Both physical and human factors determine the land use pattern of any area. Physical factors include topography, climate, soil types and human factors include population density, technological capability and cultural traditions, to name a few. The land use data gives an account of the geographic area utilized for different purposes. 

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