Get notes, questions, solutions, textual answers, pdf, extras, MCQs for Chapter 2: The Russian Revolution, which is a part of the social science class 9 syllabus for students studying under the Nagaland Board of School Education. However, these notes should be used only for references and additions/modifications should be made as per the requirements.
INTRODUCTION: The Russian Revolution of 1917 made Russia the first country in the world to have a communist government. It also led to a long and bloody Civil War which lasted till 1920, at the end of which the communists had complete control over the country. The fall of the monarchy in February 1917 and the events of October 1917 are normally called the Russian Revolution.
The Bolsheviks who took control of the government, considered their revolution in Russia only the first stage of a worldwide communist revolution. Thus, the Russian Revolution marked the beginning of the struggle between communist nations and the capitalist world. To understand the Russian Revolution of 1917 in proper perspective and dimension, one has to understand the tyranny of the Czars on the one hand and the appalling backwardness of the country and its subjects on the other.
I. Choose the correct answer.
1. Which leader introduced the collectivization programme?
Answer: (a) V.I Lenin
2. What was the duration of the first five year n introduced in USSR?
Answer: (b) 1927-1932
3. Lenin became the leader of the Bolshevik Party in:
Answer: (b) 1903
4. Serfdom had been abolished in the year _____ in Russia.
Answer: (b) 1861
5. Who was the head of the first Provisional Government set up in Russia in March 1917?
Answer: (b) Kerensky
6. Which of the following leaders started the Five Years Plans in Russia?
Answer: (b) Stalin
7. The Berlin Wall collapsed in which year?
Answer: (a) 1989
8. When was the USSR disbanded?
Answer: (b) 1991
II. Very Short Answer Type Questions.
1. When did the Russian Revolution take place?
Answer: The Russian Revolution took place in 1917.
2. Why did the Bolsheviks consider the Russian Revolution as only the “first stage” of the revolution?
Answer: The Bolsheviks considered the Russian Revolution as only the “first stage” of the revolution because the Russian Revolution marked the beginning of the struggle between communist nations and the capitalist world..
3. What made the Czar the “Autocrat of All the Russians?”
Answer: The backing by the church and the nobles made the Czar “Autocrat of All the Russians.”
4. When was Russian Social Democratic Labour Party formed?
Answer: Russian Social Democratic Labour Party was formed in 1898.
9. What did the Bolsheviks promise the people?
Ans: The Bolsheviks promised peace, bread and land to the people.
10. What led to the collapse of the Provisional Government?
Ans: The collapse of the Provisional Government was because of Kerensky’s government’s failure to implement the main demands of the revolutionaries which were peace, land for the tillers, control of industry by workers and equal status for the non-Russian nationalities.
III. Short Answer Type Questions
1. Explain the difference between:
a) The Bolsheviks and the Mensheviks.
b) February 1917 and October 1917 revolutions.
Answer: a) The Bolsheviks and the Mensheviks.
|They favoured a revolution. They were led by Lenin who organised his party to become the instrument for the Russian Revolution of l917.
|They believed that the party should be modelled on the lines of parties in countries like France or England.
b) February 1917 and October 1917 revolutions.
|February Revolution overthrew Nicholas ll and Duma leader Kerensky came to power.
|October Revolution overthrew Kerensky’s Provisional Government and Bolshevik leader, Lenin, came to power.
2. Discuss the role of the Czar in the peasant revolt of 1905.
Answer: Four members of the Assembly of Russian Workers were dismissed in 1904 at the Putilov Iron Works. This angered the workers. This eventually resulted in Bloody Sunday and it started a series of events leading to 1905 Revolutions. Also, in October 1905, Czar Nicholas issued an October Manifesto, recognising the Civil Rights for Russians and granting an elected national legislature called the Duma. He, however, kept dismissing and reelecting the members of the Duma and refused any questioning of his authority.
5. Discuss any two features of the New Economic Policy (NEP).
Answer: Two features of the New Economic Policy (NEP) were:
I. Lenin’s NEP was the adoption of a mixed economy. The Soviet Government controlled major industries, trade, and banking, while individuals were allowed to sell their food grains in the open market.
II. The industries were also given permits to open stores and small factories, and a stable currency was introduced.
IV. Long Answer Type Questions
1. Discuss the causes that led to the Revolution of 1917.
Answer: The causes that led to the Revolution of 1917 were:
i. The Czar believed in the divine right of the King to rule. The nobles enjoyed all the privileges and powers and held all key positions in the administration.
ii. The nobles and the Church supported the Czar which made him the autocrat of all the Russians.
iii. Serfdom had been abolished in l861 but that had failed to improve the conditions of the peasants. Their holdings were too small and uneconomical.
iv. Most factories were owned by foreigners. These Russian-owned factories paid very little wages to the workers.
v. Poor advisers, especially a monk called Rasputin who indirectly controlled the government through Czarine, made the autocracy unpopular.
vi. The First World War plunged the country into an economic crisis and poverty. There were shortages of labour and essential commodities.
2. Comment on the role of Vladimir Lenin in the Revolution and his contribution to economic policy. [HOTS]
Answer: In April 1917, the Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin returned to Russia from his exile. Lenin feared that the Provisional Government could set up a dictatorship. In September, he began discussions for an uprising against the government. The uprising began on 25 October and on 7 November, an All-Russia Congress of Soviets, which supported the Bolsheviks, assumed full political power. With the fall of Kerensky’s Menshevik Government, Vladimir Lenin took command.
Lenin’s NEP was the adoption of a mixed economy. The Soviet Government controlled major industries, trade and banking, while individuals were allowed to sell their food grains in the open market. They were also given permits to open stores and small factories. The aim of NEP was to encourage the economic contribution of workers, and peasants in urban and rural areas to improve the country’s economy and to allow partial capitalism.
3. Why did the Czarist autocracy collapse in 1917?
Answer: The Czarist autocracy collapsed in 1917 because of the following reasons:
i. People were not happy with the economic condition of the country as Russia remained a feudal state despite industrialisation. The condition of the peasants remained pathetic.
ii. The Czars were absolute autocrats and enjoyed unlimited authority. The church and nobles supported the Czars.
iii. Czar Nicholas II was a man of good intentions but his associates were unscrupulous. In Russia absolutism was still prevalent. The Czar believed in the divine right of the king to rule.
iv. One of the most dominating persons amongst his associates was a godman called Rasputin. He dominated the Czarina and through her exercised considerable influence over the functioning of the government of Russia.
v. Industrialisation had led to the formation of workers’ organisations in Russia which united people in the lower strata of the society.
vi. The First World War led to widespread poverty and people were disappointed with the war. As the war continued the
Czar refused to consult the main parties in the Duma and support wore thin.
6. Discuss the causes and the nature of the October Revolution.
Answer: Alexander Kerensky was a moderate among the socialists. He tried to establish a liberal democratic form of government. However, he could not implement the main demands of the revolutionaries which were peace, land to the tillers, control of industry by workers and equal status for the non-Russian nationalities. As the conflict between the Provisional Government and the Bolsheviks grew, Lenin feared the Provisional Government would set up a dictatorship. On 16 October, Lenin persuaded the Petrograd Soviet and the Bolshevik Party to agree to a socialist seizure of power. The uprising began on 25 October.
Uprisings took place in different cities. There was heavy fighting – especially in Moscow – but by December, the Bolsheviks controlled the Moscow- Petrograd area. On 7 November 1917, an All-Russia Congress of Soviets assumed full political power. The date as per the old Russian calendar was October 25 and hence the name October Revolution.
7. Discuss the legacy of the Russian Revolution.
Answer: The legacy of the Russian Revolution were:
i. The USSR gave the model of centralised economic planning, which is still relevant in the case of developing economies. Communism came as a warning to exploitative capitalist societies.
ii. Capitalist countries all over the world have taken measures to ensure that workers get fair wages that enable them to live with dignity.
iii. The possibility of a workers’ state fires the imagination of people across the world. In many countries, including India and Great Britain communist parties were formed.
iv. The Bolsheviks encouraged colonial people to throw off the yokes of slavery.
v. Many Indians were inspired by the Russian Revolution. Several attended the Communist University.
vi. The Russian experiment has many lessons. The importance of profit as an incentive to bring out the best in human effort cannot be negated.
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