Structure of Society: NBSE Class 12 (Arts) Sociology answers

STRUCTURE OF SOCIETY
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Get summary, textual answers, solutions, notes, extras, PDF to NBSE Class 12 (Arts) Sociology Chapter/unit 2 Structure of Society. However, the educational materials should only be used for reference and students are encouraged to make necessary changes.

Introduction

India’s social demographic structure has witnessed significant changes over the years, with the country experiencing rapid population growth. As the second most populous nation globally, India accounts for 17.5% of the world’s population while occupying only 2.4% of the Earth’s land area. The latest census data from 2011 reveals that India’s population has crossed the 1.21 billion mark, with a male-to-female ratio of approximately 623.7 million to 586.4 million. This surge in population growth is primarily attributed to a higher birth rate than the death rate, with additional influences stemming from migration patterns, including immigration and emigration. Social demography in India encompasses various aspects such as fertility, mortality, and migration rates, as well as the age and sex composition of the population. It is an interdisciplinary field that explores the interplay between demographic processes and structures and their relationship with social processes and structures.

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Textual questions and answers

Very short answer questions

1. What is demography?

Answer: Demography is the systematic study of people and related aspects. It involves the mathematical study of demographic processes like fertility, mortality, and migration, as well as demographic structures like age composition, sex composition, and size of population.

2. Who used the term demography for the first time and when?

Answer:The term ‘demography’ was first used by Guillard in 1885.

3. What is the etymological meaning of demography?

Answer: The word ‘demography’ is derived from the words ‘demos’ which means people and ‘graphy’ which means science or study. Therefore, etymologically ‘demography’ means the systematic study of people and various related aspects.

4. What is the population of India according to Census of India 2011?

Answer: The population of India according to Census of India 2011 is 1,210,193,422 (or 1.21 billion), with 623,724,248 males and 586,469,174 females.

5. Which is the second most populous country in the world?

Answer: India is the second most populous country in the world after China. (According to the textbook. However, according to latest estimates, China is the second most populous country in the world after India)

6. What is meant by population growth?

Answer: Population growth refers to the increase in the size of a population over a certain period of time. It occurs when the number of births exceeds the number of deaths, and can also be influenced by immigration and emigration. The formula for measuring population growth rate is: Present size of population + (births – deaths) + (immigrants – emigrants). In India, rapid population growth is mainly due to high birth rates and low death rates.

7. What is fertility?

Answer: Fertility refers to the number of children that are born to a woman.

8. What is crude birth rate?

Answer: Crude birth rate is the number of live births taking place in a year in a specified area (country or state) per thousand persons living in that area. It is calculated using the following formula:

Crude Birth Rate = (Number of live births / Total population) x 1000

9. What is crude death rate?

Answer: Crude death rate refers to the number of deaths taking place in a year in a specified area (country or state) per thousand persons. It is calculated by dividing the number of deaths in a year by the mid-year population of the area and multiplying the result by 1000.

10. What is meant by infant mortality?

Answer: Infant mortality refers to the death of children who have not completed one year of age.

11. What is infant mortality rate?

Answer: Infant mortality rate is the number of infants dying in a year per thousand live births. It is an important measure of mortality and reflects the health and well-being of infants in a population.

12. What is immigration?

Answer: Immigration is the movement of people from one area to another area. It refers to the act of entering and settling in a country or region to which one is not native. Immigration can be internal if it takes place within a country or international if it is a movement from one country to another.

13. What is emigration?

Answer: Emigration is the act of leaving one’s own country to permanently or semi-permanently settle in another country. It is a type of migration that involves people moving out of a particular area or country. Emigration is the opposite of immigration, which refers to the act of people moving into a particular area or country.

14. How is age composition studied?

Answer: Age composition is studied by examining the distribution of the population in different age groups. The three important age groups are 0-14 years, 15-59 years, and 60 years and above. Those who belong to the age group 15-59 years are usually considered economically active, and the others depend on them. This dependence is measured in terms of dependency ratio.

15. What is meant by life expectancy?

Answer: Life expectancy refers to the number of years a person born in a particular year can be expected to live. It is an important indicator of the overall health and well-being of a population. As the death rate declines, life expectancy gradually rises. 

16. What is sex/gender ratio?

Answer: Sex ratio or gender ratio refers to the number of females per 1000 males in a given population.

17. What is the sex/gender ratio in India according to Census of India 2011?

Answer: In India, the sex ratio has been adverse to females since 1901, with only 940 females per 1000 males according to the 2011 Provisional Census. 

18. What is the meaning of rural-urban distribution?

Answer: Rural-urban distribution refers to the division of population and settlements between rural areas (villages) and urban areas (towns and cities). 

19. What is literacy?

Answer: Literacy means the ability to read and write in any language. 

20. What is meant by literacy rate?

Answer: Literacy rate refers to the percentage of the population who are literate, meaning they have the ability to read and write in any language. It is calculated as the percentage of the population who are literate and is currently calculated for those who are 7 years and above in India.

21. What is the literacy rate in India according to Census of India 2011? 

Answer: The literacy rate in India according to Census of India 2011 is 74.04%. Out of this, 82.14% are for men and 65.46% for women which indicate that it is much higher among males than among females.

22. What is the main aim of population policy in India?

Answer: The main aim of population policy in India is to reduce population growth by reducing the birth rate. The National Population Policy has several objectives, including reducing crude birth rate, crude death rate, and infant mortality rate, providing basic reproductive and child care services, making school education compulsory up to the age of 14 and providing population education, raising the age of marriage, providing universal immunization of children, providing universal access to information, counseling, and services related to fertility, controlling AIDS and other communicable diseases, integrating reproductive and child health services into the Indian systems of medicine, promoting vigorously the small family norm, and making population programs people-centered. The mid-term aim of the National Population Policy is to bring the total fertility rate down to replacement levels by 2010 through vigorous implementation of inter-sectoral operational strategies, and its long-term aim is to achieve a stable population by the year 2045 at a level that is consistent with the socio-economic and ecological requirements at that time.

23. What is the new name of Family Planning Programme in India?

Answer: The Family Planning Programme in India was renamed as Family Welfare Programme.

24. Expand the abbreviation “KAP”.

Answer: Knowledge, Attitude and Practice

25. What is the basic aim of the Family Welfare Programme?

Answer: The basic aim of the Family Welfare Programme in India is to reduce population growth by reducing the birth rate. Its objectives include reducing crude birth rate, crude death rate, and infant mortality rate, providing basic reproductive and child care services, making school education compulsory up to the age of 14 and providing population education, raising the age of marriage, providing universal immunization of children, providing universal access to information, counseling, and services related to fertility, controlling AIDS and other communicable diseases, promoting vigorously the small family norm, and making population programs people-centered.

26. What is the meaning of the word ‘rural’?

Answer: The word ‘rural’ refers to ‘village’ and things pertaining to the village and agriculture.

27. What is the meaning of the word ‘urban’?

Answer: The word ‘urban’ refers to a town or city and to things pertaining to them.

28. What is urbanism?

Answer: Urbanism refers to the way of life found in urban centers.

29. What is a corporation?

Answer: A corporation is a type of local self-government system in India that is used in cities.

30. What is a municipality?

Answer: In India, a local self-government system is called a municipality in a town. It is identified as a statutory town if it is notified by the government.

31. What is the main basis of rural economy?

Answer: Agriculture is the predominant occupation of the people in the villages in India. Other occupations are related to agriculture.

32. What is a statutory town?

Answer: In India, urban centres are identified as statutory towns if they are notified by the government. Statutory towns have a local self-government system called municipality in a town and corporation in a city.

Short answer questions

1. Give some reasons for the high birth rate in India.

Answer: Some of the reasons for the high birth rate in India in the past were: i) universality of marriage because of religious beliefs, ii) early marriage, iii) importance given to childbearing by a woman, iv) economic, social, cultural and religious value of children, and v) the desire for a son.

2. What is mortality? What are the important measures of mortality?

Answer: Mortality means death. Important measures of mortality are the death rate, expectation of life at birth (life expectancy), and infant mortality rate. 

3. What is migration? What are the two types of migration?

Answer: Migration is the movement of people from one place to another, also known as spatial mobility. 

There are two types of migration: internal and international. Internal migration takes place within a country and can be local or regional, short-term or long-term. International migration is a movement from one country to another. In India, international migration is not significant, and the most important type of long-term migration is rural-urban migration.

4. Distinguish between long term migration and short term migration.

Answer: Long term migration involves those who go in search of work and change their residence on a permanent or semi-permanent basis. On the other hand, short term migration is usually seasonal and involves people moving for a short period in search of work. However, it is not considered migration in the strict sense.

5. What is the most important type of long term migration in India? What is the proportion of migrant population in India according to 2001 census?

Answer: The most important type of long term migration in India is rural-urban migration. According to the 2001 census, the proportion of migrants in the population was 28%, with most of them being internal migrants.

6. What is the main aim of National Population Policy 2000?

Answer: The main aim of the National Population Policy 2000 is to achieve a stable population by the year 2045 at a level that is consistent with the socio-economic and ecological requirements at that time. Its mid-term aim was to bring the total fertility rate down to replacement levels by 2010 through vigorous implementation of inter-sectoral operational strategies.

7. What is rural community?

Answer: A rural community is a kind of enlarged primary group characterized by intimate face-to-face interaction, having a certain degree of community sentiment and a relatively autonomous organization. It is dominated by agriculture as the primary occupation, and even non-agricultural occupations like those of artisans and carpenters are directly or indirectly linked with agriculture.

8. What is urban community?

Answer: An urban community is a loose organization of people living in a limited area, with high population density, and formal social organization. The way of life found in an urban center is called urbanism.

9. What are the criteria of a non- statutory or census town?

Answer: The criteria for a non-statutory or census town in India are:

  • 1. A minimum population of 5000.
  • 2. At least 75% of the adult male working population engaged in non-agricultural pursuits.
  • 3. A density of population of at least 400 persons per square kilometre.

10. What is the difference between ‘municipality’ and ‘corporation’?

Answer: In India, the local self-government system is called a municipality in a town and corporation in a city.

Essay type questions

1. What is social demography? What are its subject matters?

Answer: Social demography is an interdisciplinary study that focuses on the relationship between demographic processes and structures and social processes and structures. It is based on the premise that there is a reciprocal influence between social processes and structures on the one hand, and demographic processes and structures on the other. Social demography takes into account social and cultural factors while studying demographic processes and demographic structures. 

Formal demography, on the other hand, is a mathematical study of demographic processes like fertility, mortality, and migration, as well as demographic structures like age composition, sex composition, and size of population. Therefore, etymologically ‘demography’ means the systematic study of people and various related aspects.

The subject matter of social demography includes not only demographic processes and structures but also their relationship to social processes and structures. Social demography lies at the intersection of demography and sociology.

2. What are the salient features of National Population Policy 2000?

Answer: The National Population Policy 2000 aims to reduce population growth by reducing the birth rate. Its mid-term aim is to bring the total fertility rate down to replacement levels by 2010 through vigorous implementation of inter-sectoral operational strategies. Its long term aim is to achieve a stable population by the year 2045 at a level that is consistent with the socio-economic and ecological requirements at that time.

Other objectives of the policy include:

  • Reducing crude birth rate, crude death rate, and infant mortality rate.
  • Providing basic reproductive and child care services.
  • Making school education compulsory up to the age of 14 and providing population education.
  • Raising the age of marriage.
  • Providing universal immunization of children.
  • Providing universal access to information, counseling, and services related to fertility (birth).
  • Controlling AIDS and other communicable diseases.
  • To integrate reproductive and child health services into the Indian systems of medicine. 
  • To promote vigorously the small family norm. 
  • To make population programmes people centered.

3. What are the features of a rural community?

Answer: The following are some of the important features of a traditional rural community in India.

  • Agriculture is the dominant occupation. Even non-agricultural occupations like those of artisans and carpenters are directly or indirectly linked with agriculture.
  • The joint family is a social and cultural institution of great importance.
  • The caste system is the main form of social stratification in Indian villages.
  • The jajmani system is the system of economic, social and cultural ties between the castes in a village. The castes found in a village are divided into two categories. The first is the category of jajmans or masters. The other category is that of service providers.
  • Usually, there is a strong community sentiment in a village.
  • There is less social mobility and slow social change because rural people are slow to accept change or innovation due to tradition. There is also less social mobility because it is not easy to change occupations.
  • Social control is informal because primary institutions like the family, caste and religion exercise informal social control. Behaviour of the people is governed by customs, folkways and mores.
  • People in Indian villages, especially those who belong to the lower castes suffer from poverty and illiteracy.

4. Highlight the features of urban community.

Answer: Features of Urban Community are:

  • Social Heterogeneity: Urban centres have a concentration of a large population with high density. People belong to different social and ethnic communities and are engaged in a great variety of occupations with specialisation.
  • Formal Social Control: Social control is formal and agencies like the police are necessary.
  • Predominance of Secondary Groups and Voluntary Associations: There is a predominance of secondary groups and voluntary associations.
  • Individualism: An important characteristic of urbanism is individualism. Individuahsm means importance given to the individual and individual’s interests.
  • Social Mobility: Social mobility is significant because it is possible to change occupations and to improve one’s social status.
  • Greater Social Inequalities: Urban centres are usually characterised by greater social inequalities. There are wide differences between the rich and the poor.

5. Explain the features of rural-urban divides and linkages in India.

Answer: Features of Rural-Urban Divides and Linkages in India are:

Social Organization

  • In villages, joint families usually correspond to joint households, while in urban centres, people prefer nuclear households.
  • Kinship ties in villages are restricted to private life, but in urban centres, they are also used in political and economic spheres.
  • In villages, the neighbourhood is based on mutual help, community sentiment, and ‘we-feeling’. But in urban areas, there is a lack of cooperation and sympathy due to the rise of individualism, self-interest, and competitiveness.
  • In rural life, social ranking is based on caste, while in urban centres, though caste is found, class differentiation is predominant.

Social Relationships and Interaction

  • In rural society, relationships are primary, that is, personal, informal, and permanent. But in urban society, relationships are mainly secondary, that is, formal and impersonal.

Social Mobility

  • Social and occupational mobility in the villages is very limited because it is governed by the rigid caste system. But in urban centres, both vertical and horizontal mobility are possible.
  • In the village, social status is determined by birth in a caste, but in urban centres, it is determined more by class because of the emphasis on achievement rather than ascription of status.

Social Control

  • In rural society, social control is exercised through informal means like folkways, mores, and taboos. Deviance is checked by caste or village panchayats. But in urban society, social control needs formal means like enacted laws enforced by the police and courts.

Social Change

  • Social change in villages is slow because there is little innovation due to a lack of opportunities. But in urban society, there is rapid social change due to innovations and adaptations because of greater opportunities.

Cultural Life

  • There is cultural unity in villages. Common values and group norms are reinforced through festivals, rituals, age-old customs, and traditions. But in urban centres, cultural life is heterogeneous, individualistic, flexible, and dynamic.

Economic Life

  • Agriculture is the predominant occupation of the people in the villages. Other occupations are related to agriculture. Income levels and consumption levels are low. But in urban centres, there is a great variety of occupations due to specialisation, and income and consumption levels are high.

In India, rural and urban communities are complementary units of the Indian state. Villagers are the suppliers of food, labourers, and raw materials to urban centres. On the other hand, urban centres provide various types of services like higher education, health care, banking, and commodities.

Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) and Problem Solving Assessment (PSA)

1. A child is studying in KG class and can read and write. Is this child a literate according to the Census of India?

Answer: The literacy rate in India is calculated for those who are 7 and above years of age. Therefore, a child studying in KG class who can read and write may not be considered literate according to the Census of India.

2. There are rural-urban divides in India. Is it true also in Nagaland? What differences can you observe between village and town life.

Answer: Yes, rural-urban divides exist in Nagaland as well, just like in other parts of India. While Nagaland is predominantly rural, there are urban centers like Kohima and Dimapur that showcase differences in various aspects of life when compared to the villages. Here are some of the main differences observed between village and town life in Nagaland:

Infrastructure: Towns have better infrastructure, including roads, electricity, and water supply. Villages in Nagaland often lack well-maintained roads and face frequent power outages and water scarcity.

Education: Urban centers tend to have more educational institutions, including schools, colleges, and universities, offering a higher standard of education. In rural areas, schools are often limited in number and quality, which can impact the overall educational attainment of the population.

Healthcare: Healthcare facilities are more accessible in towns, with better-equipped hospitals, clinics, and diagnostic centers. Villages usually have limited access to healthcare facilities, with some relying on traditional medicines and practices.

Employment opportunities: Towns offer more diverse employment opportunities, including jobs in government, private sector, and service industries. Villages, on the other hand, primarily rely on agriculture, handicrafts, and small-scale industries for livelihood.

Cultural preservation: Villages in Nagaland are known for their rich cultural heritage, with traditional practices, languages, and customs being better preserved in rural areas. Urbanization in towns often leads to the dilution of traditional values and customs as people adopt modern lifestyles.

Social structure: Village life in Nagaland is characterized by close-knit communities, with social bonds and mutual support being strong. In towns, there is greater diversity, which can lead to individualism and lesser community bonding.

Environment: Rural areas in Nagaland are characterized by pristine landscapes, lush green forests, and clean air. In contrast, urban centers face issues like pollution, deforestation, and loss of green spaces due to rapid development.

Connectivity and Communication: Towns usually have better connectivity, both in terms of transportation and communication infrastructure. Access to the internet, mobile networks, and public transport is more readily available in urban areas compared to villages.

Extra/additional questions and answers

1. What is the definition of demography? 

Answer: Demography is the systematic study of people and various related aspects.

2. Explain the difference between formal demography and social demography. 

Answer: Formal demography is a mathematical study of demographic processes like fertility, mortality, and migration, as well as demographic structures like age composition, sex composition, and size of population. Social demography, on the other hand, takes into account social and cultural factors while studying demographic processes and demographic structures.

3. Describe India’s population growth between 1901 and 2011. 

Answer: India’s population growth has been rapid over the years. In 1901, India’s population was only 238.3 million (23.83 crore). In 1991, the population increased to 843.9 million (84.39 crore), and by 2001, it reached 1,028,737,436 (1.028 billion). As per the Provisional Population Census 2011, India’s population is 1,210,193,422 (or 1.21 billion), with 623,724,248 males and 586,469,174 females.

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28.  What are the key features of urban centres in India?

Answer: The key features of urban centres in India include:

  • Social heterogeneity: Concentration of a large population with high density, engaged in a variety of occupations and belonging to different social and ethnic communities.
  • Formal social control: Agencies like the police are necessary.
  • Predominance of secondary groups and voluntary associations.
  • Individualism: Importance given to the individual and individual’s interests.
  • Social mobility: Possibility to change occupations and improve one’s social status.
  • Greater social inequalities: Wide differences between the rich and the poor.

Extra/additional MCQs

1. When was the term ‘demography’ first used?

A. 1880 B. 1885 C. 1890 D. 1895

Answer: B. 1885

2. When was the last Census conducted in India?

A. 2010 B. 2011 C. 2012 D. 2013

Answer: B. 2011

3. What percentage of the world’s population does India support?

A. 10% B. 15% C. 17.5% D. 20%

Answer: C. 17.5%

4. What was India’s population in 1901?

A. 100 million B. 200 million C. 238.3 million D. 300 million

Answer: C. 238.3 million

5. What was India’s population in 2001?

A. 800 million B. 900 million C. 1 billion D. 1.028 billion

Answer: D. 1.028 billion

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40. What is the local self-government system called in a village in India?

A. Municipality B. Corporation C. Panchayat D. Community Council

Answer: C. Panchayat

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