Get here the notes, questions, answers, textbook solutions, summary, extras, and PDF of TBSE (Tripura Board) Class 10 Social Science (History) Chapter 3 “The Making of a Global World.” However, the provided notes should only be treated as references, and the students are encouraged to make changes to them as they feel appropriate.
Trade and cultural exchange have influenced how human societies have interacted over time. Examples include the introduction of new crops and foods, as well as the Silk Roads. The discovery of the sea route to Asia and the arrival of Europeans in America caused a significant change in global trade and commerce in the 16th century, which redirected trade flows and altered societies. The British abolished the Corn Laws and switched from domestic to international trade during the 19th century, which caused further changes in the global economy in terms of migration, labour movement, capital flows, and technology. While transportation and refrigeration innovations brought prosperity to Europe, colonised societies suffered as a result of being integrated into the global economy and losing their freedoms and means of subsistence. The destructive effects of European powers on the economies and way of life of colonised people are best illustrated by the colonisation of Africa.
European imperialism significantly influenced the lives and fortunes of people all over the world during the late 19th century, a time of significant change and impact for the world. Intense taxes were imposed and inheritance laws were changed as a result of European colonisers’ arrival in Africa and the spread of the cattle plague, which had a significant impact on African societies by forcing people into the labour market and enhancing their power.
Indentured labour migration from India at this time was a complicated phenomenon because people were chosen from impoverished areas of India and then faced difficult living and working conditions abroad. Despite this, the migration led to the development of sizable communities of people with Indian ancestry all over the world, some of whom went on to become well-known figures in a variety of fields.
The Shikaripuri Shroffs and Nattukottai Chettiars were two of the Indian traders and financiers who were instrumental in establishing emporia all over the world and financing export agriculture in Central and Southeast Asia. The changes that occurred in the Indian economy over the course of the 19th century are highlighted by the decline in cotton textile exports from India and the rise in raw material and opium exports.
Indian trade surpluses helped Britain balance its trade deficits in the late 19th century, which was crucial for the world economy. Some of the main causes of this trade surplus included the oversupply of British manufactured goods on the Indian market and the rise in exports of food grain and raw materials to Britain and other countries.
Long-lasting economic effects of the First World War were felt both during and after the conflict. Industries were rearranged to produce war-related goods during the conflict, and entire societies were restructured to aid the war effort. Unprecedented levels of death and destruction occurred, and the loss of physically fit men of working age decreased the size of Europe’s labour force and decreased household incomes. After the war, the United States changed from being a global debtor to a global creditor, making it difficult for nations like Britain to recover their economies because of their heavy external debt loads and their inability to compete with newly developed industries in India and Japan.
The US economy began to grow strongly again in the early 1920s, and mass production played a significant role in this period. The inventor of mass production, Henry Ford, built his first car factory in Detroit using the assembly line technique that he learned in a Chicago slaughterhouse. This made it possible to produce vehicles more quickly and affordably. To keep workers, Ford had to double the daily wage and forbid trade unions at first because they couldn’t handle the strain of working on assembly lines. The assembly line and mass production significantly altered how goods were produced in the US industrial sector.
India suffered greatly from the Great Depression at the beginning of the 20th century because it was a significant contributor to the world economy at the time. India’s trade suffered greatly from the collapse of exports and imports, and the agricultural sector was particularly hard hit. Although agricultural prices decreased, the colonial government did not lower its tax demands, which led to an increase in peasants’ and farmers’ debt. The worst effects of the depression were somewhat mitigated in urban areas, but rural India was severely affected, which at the time contributed to social unrest.
The Second World War, which began as a result of the Great Depression and was fought between the Allies and the Axis powers, resulted in a great deal of economic destruction, death, and destruction. The post-war global economic system was significantly impacted by the war. The maintenance of economic stability and full employment in the industrial world was the primary goal of the post-World War II international economic system. The Bretton Woods Conference, which created the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, was held in 1944 to accomplish this goal (World Bank). These organisations were created to control member countries’ external surpluses and deficits as well as to finance post-war reconstruction.
For Western industrial countries and Japan in the 1950s and 1960s, a period of rapid economic growth began with the implementation of the Bretton Woods system of fixed exchange rates and the founding of the IMF and World Bank. Developing nations made significant investments in infrastructure and modern technology in an effort to catch up to the advanced industrial nations. However, because of the lengthy periods of colonial rule, the former colonies faced numerous difficulties like poverty and a lack of resources. The IMF and the World Bank were not designed to address the poverty and lack of development in the former colonies because their initial focus was on serving the needs of industrialised nations. As a result, developing nations established the Group of 77 (G-77) to call for a new global economic structure that would grant them better access to developed nations’ markets, more development aid, and control over their own resources.
The international financial system underwent significant changes in the middle of the 1970s as developing nations were compelled to obtain loans from Western commercial banks and private lending organisations. Periodic debt crises and rising poverty as a result, particularly in Africa and Latin America. The industrialised world experienced rising unemployment beginning in the middle of the 1970s and continuing through the early 1990s. In search of lower costs and bigger markets, multinational corporations (MNCs) started moving production to Asia’s low-wage nations, like China. As a result, nations like India, China, and Brazil experienced rapid economic growth, changing the global economic geography.
Textual questions and answers
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1. Give two examples of different types of global exchanges which took place before the seventeenth century, choosing one example from Asia and one from the Americas.
Answer: Before the seventeenth century, two notable examples of global exchanges took place:
Silk Routes: Connected vast regions of Asia with Europe and northern Africa through trade in goods like silk, pottery, spices, and textiles. Trade and cultural exchange always went hand in hand. Buddhism also spread through the silk routes from Eastern India to other parts of Asia.
Columbus’ Discovery of America: The introduction of new crops like potatoes, tomatoes, chillies, and sweet potatoes to Europe and Asia was a result of Christopher Columbus’ accidental discovery of the Americas. These foods were previously unknown and came from the American Indians. The potato was particularly significant as it improved the diet of Europe’s poor and led to an increase in life expectancy.
2. Explain how the global transfer of disease in the pre-modern world helped in the colonisation of the Americas.
Answer: The global transfer of disease played a crucial role in the colonisation of the Americas during the pre-modern world. The entry of Europeans in the sixteenth century introduced smallpox, a deadly disease to the Americas where its original inhabitants had no immunity against it. The disease spread quickly ahead of any Europeans reaching the continent, killing and decimating whole communities. The effect of smallpox was so profound that it paved the way for conquest, as guns could be bought or captured and turned against the invaders but diseases like smallpox were mostly immune to the conquerors. The Spanish conquerors were therefore able to carry out the conquest and colonization of America with smallpox as their most powerful weapon. The conquest of Americas and the vast lands and abundant crops and minerals it had to offer, helped to transform trade and lives everywhere. The precious metals, particularly silver, from mines located in present-day Peru and Mexico, enhanced Europe’s wealth and financed its trade with Asia. The global transfer of disease was therefore a crucial factor in the colonisation of the Americas and the shifting of the centre of world trade from the East towards Europe.
3. Write a note to explain the effects of the following:
a) The British government’s decision to abolish the Corn Laws.
Answer: Britain’s demand for food grains had risen due to population growth beginning in the late eighteenth century. The demand for agricultural products increased along with the growth of industry and urban centres, which led to an increase in the price of food grains. The government also imposed import restrictions on corn under pressure from landed groups. The “Corn Laws” were a common name for the legislation that permitted the government to carry out this action. Industrialists and urban residents forced the abolition of the Corn Laws due to their dissatisfaction with the high cost of food.
b) The coming of rinderpest to Africa.
Answer: The coming of rinderpest to Africa in the late 1880s had a significant impact on the lives and livelihoods of the local population. The disease was brought to Africa by infected cattle imported from British Asia to feed Italian soldiers invading Eritrea in East Africa. The virus spread rapidly across the continent, killing 90% of the cattle, which were essential for African livelihoods. The loss of cattle disrupted African life and created opportunities for European colonizers to increase their control and influence.
European imperialists were attracted to Africa due to its vast resources, and they came to establish plantations and mines. However, they faced a shortage of labor willing to work for wages. Employers used various methods to recruit and retain labor, including imposing heavy taxes and changing inheritance laws to displace peasants from their land. The loss of cattle due to rinderpest made the situation worse, as planters, mine owners, and colonial governments monopolized the remaining cattle resources, further forcing Africans into the labor market.
c) The death of men of working-age in Europe because of the World War.
Answer: The First World War, which lasted for more than four years, caused enormous destruction and a number of fatalities that was unheard of at the time. Leading industrial nations from around the world took part in the conflict between the Allies and the Central Powers. Machine guns, tanks, aircraft, and chemical weapons were all frequently employed during the fighting. The participation of Europe’s labour force inflicted the majority of the death and destruction, with 9 million people killed and 20 million injured.
Men of working age passing away in Europe had a significant impact on the economies and societies of the affected nations. Household incomes decreased and the workforce shrank as there were fewer men of working age. The entire society had to be reorganised for war, with women filling in for men in jobs that had previously been performed by men. Industries had to be reorganised to produce war-related goods.
Additionally, because these major economic powers were at war with one another, the war caused the economic ties between them to break. To finance the war, Britain, for instance, was forced to take out sizable loans from US banks and the general public. In turn, this changed the US from an international debtor to an international creditor, resulting in the US and its citizens owning more assets abroad than foreign governments and citizens owned in the US at the end of the war.
d) The Great Depression on the Indian economy.
Answer: The Great Depression had a profound impact on the Indian economy, as it was a global event that affected economies, societies, and lives worldwide. India, as a colonial exporter of agricultural goods and importer of manufactures, was immediately affected by the depression. The country’s exports and imports nearly halved between 1928 and 1934, and the prices of agricultural products like wheat fell by 50%. The peasants and farmers who were producing for the world market were the worst hit, as the colonial government refused to reduce revenue demands. The price of raw jute crashed, and many peasants who had borrowed in the hope of better times or to increase output found themselves facing ever-lower prices and falling deeper into debt. Across India, peasants’ indebtedness increased, as they used up their savings, mortgaged lands, and sold precious metals to meet their expenses. India became an exporter of precious metals, including gold, during the depression years.
The depression proved less severe for urban India, as falling prices meant that those with fixed incomes, such as town-dwelling landowners and middle-class salaried employees, were better off. The cost of everything was lower, and industrial investment also grew as the government extended tariff protection to industries under the pressure of nationalist opinion. On the other hand, the depression had a severe impact on rural India, where unrest was widespread. This was the backdrop against which Mahatma Gandhi launched the civil disobedience movement in 1931, at the height of the depression.
e) The decision of MNCs to relocate production to Asian countries.
Answer: Global economic growth was significantly impacted by multinational corporations’ (MNCs) decision to move production operations to low-wage Asian nations beginning in the late 1970s. Developing nations were forced to borrow money from Western commercial banks and private lending institutions as a result of the changes in the global financial system and could no longer rely on them for loans and development assistance. Periodic debt crises, decreased incomes, and an increase in poverty were the results, especially in Africa and Latin America.
The industrialised world saw a rise in unemployment starting in the middle of the 1970s, and it stayed high until the early 1990s. On the other hand, the low wages in nations like China made them desirable locations for investment by foreign MNCs vying to dominate global markets. The world’s economic geography was altered as a result of the shifting of industry to low-wage nations and the growth of international trade and capital flows. In the past 20 years, a number of nations have experienced rapid economic change, including China, India, and Brazil. The low cost structure of the Chinese economy, especially its low wages, has made it a major producer of goods like TVs, mobile phones, and toys, all of which are widely available in stores.
4. Give two examples from history to show the impact of technology on food availability.
Answer: The two examples from history that show the impact of technology on food availability are:
i. The development of refrigerated ships, which enabled the transport of perishable foods over long distances. With the advent of refrigerated ships, animals were slaughtered for food at the starting point in America, Australia, or New Zealand and then transported to Europe as frozen meat, reducing shipping costs and lowering meat prices in Europe, which allowed the European poor to consume a more varied diet.
ii. The trade in meat, which offers a good example of the interconnectedness of social, political, and economic factors with technology. Before the 1870s, live animals were shipped from America to Europe, leading to many animals dying in voyage, falling ill, losing weight, or becoming unfit to eat, making meat an expensive luxury that was beyond the reach of the European poor. The development of refrigerated ships reduced shipping costs and lowered meat prices, allowing the European poor to have access to a more varied diet that included meat, butter, and eggs in addition to the earlier monotony of bread and potatoes. This improvement in living conditions promoted social peace within the country and support for imperialism abroad.
5. What is meant by the Bretton Woods Agreement?
Answer: The Bretton Woods Agreement refers to the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference held in July 1944 in New Hampshire, USA, where the framework for the post-war international economic system was agreed upon. The conference established the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank) to deal with external surpluses and deficits of member nations and finance post-war reconstruction respectively. The IMF and the World Bank are also referred to as the Bretton Woods institutions or sometimes the Bretton Woods twins and the post-war international economic system is described as the Bretton Woods system. Decision-making in the Bretton Woods institutions is controlled by the Western industrial powers with the US having an effective right of veto over key decisions. The Bretton Woods system was based on fixed exchange rates, with national currencies pegged to the dollar at a fixed exchange rate, and the dollar anchored to gold at a fixed price of $35 per ounce of gold.
6. Imagine that you are an indentured Indian labourer in the Caribbean. Drawing from the details in this chapter, write a letter to your family describing your life and feelings.
Answer: Dear Family,
I hope this note finds you in good health. I’m writing to give you an update on how my life as an Indian indentured servant in the Caribbean is going. My current situation is very different from what I had anticipated, and the journey has been challenging.
The conditions here are harsh, but agents who recruited me made promises of a better life. I work and live on a plantation, where living standards are appalling and there are few legal protections. However, I have managed to survive. Even though being caught carries a severe penalty, I have occasionally escaped into the wild. Furthermore, I’ve come across fresh ways for people to express themselves both individually and collectively, fusing various cultural traditions to produce something wholly original.
I have to admit, there is a real sense of loss and alienation. The blending of cultures that has occurred here has contributed to the creation of the global community, but it has cost me. I am frequently regarded as a “coolie” and an unwelcome minority. But I’m optimistic that things will improve for people like me who are descended from Indian indentured labourers.
I miss home and wish I could be with you right now, but I have to stay here and try to make the best of the circumstances. Please remember me and say a prayer for me.
7. Explain the three types of movements or flows within international economic exchange. Find one example of each type of flow which involved India and Indians, and write a short account of it.
Answer: The three types of movements or flows within international economic exchanges are:
i. The flow of trade – This refers to the trade of goods, such as cloth or wheat, between countries.
Example: During the 19th century, India was a major exporter of textiles, particularly cotton, to the United Kingdom. This was a significant flow of trade between India and the UK.
ii. The flow of labour – This refers to the migration of people in search of employment from one country to another.
Example: In the 19th century, a significant number of Indians migrated to Southeast Asia, particularly to British colonies like Malaya and Fiji, to work as indentured labourers in the sugar and rubber industries. This was a flow of labour from India to Southeast Asia.
iii. The movement of capital – This refers to the investment of capital, either short-term or long-term, over long distances.
Example: In the 19th century, British companies made significant investments in India’s infrastructure, including the construction of railroads, roads, and ports. This was a movement of capital from the UK to India.
8. Explain the causes of the Great Depression.
Answer: The Great Depression began around 1929 and lasted until the mid-1930s, affecting most parts of the world with catastrophic declines in production, employment, income, and trade. Several factors contributed to the depression. Agricultural overproduction was a problem, and the drop in agricultural prices exacerbated it. Farmers attempted to increase production, which exacerbated the market glut and pushed prices even lower. Many countries financed their investments through US loans in the mid-1920s, but when trouble arose, US overseas lenders panicked and reduced loans, resulting in a crisis for countries that relied on US loans. The withdrawal of US loans caused the failure of some major European banks and the collapse of currencies such as the British pound sterling, while it exacerbated the slump in agricultural and raw material prices in Latin America and elsewhere. The United States’ attempt to protect its economy during the Great Depression by doubling import duties also dealt a severe blow to global trade. The United States was also the industrial country hardest hit by the Great Depression. With falling prices and the threat of a depression, US banks reduced domestic lending and called back loans, causing farms to be unable to sell their harvests, households to be ruined, and businesses to fail. As unemployment rose, the US banking system imploded, with thousands of banks going bankrupt and being forced to close. By 1933, over 4,000 banks had closed, and approximately 110, 000 businesses had failed between 1929 and 1932. Although most industrial countries had begun to recover economically by 1935, the longer-term effects on society, politics, international relations, and people’s minds proved more lasting.
9. Explain what is referred to as the G-77 countries. In what ways can G-77 be seen as a reaction to the activities of the Bretton Woods twins?
Answer: The term “G-77 countries” designates a collection of developing nations that banded together to press for a new global economic system. Due to the fact that the majority of developing nations did not benefit from the rapid growth that Western economies experienced in the 1950s and 1960s, this group was established.
The G-77 can be seen as a response to the actions of the Bretton Woods twins (IMF and World Bank), which were dominated by the former colonial powers and ill-prepared to address the problems of poverty and lack of development in the former colonies. The G-77 nations sought a system that would give them full control over their natural resources, more aid for development, more equitable prices for raw materials, and better access for their manufactured goods to markets in developed nations.
Q. Explain what we mean when we say that the world ‘shrank’ in the 1500s.
Answer: When it is stated that the world “shrank” in the 1500s, it refers to the discovery of sea routes to Asia and America by European sailors. This discovery connected the previously separate regions of the world, leading to increased flows of goods, people, knowledge, and customs. As a result, the world became smaller as previously isolated areas were connected and the global network of trade was expanded or redirected towards Europe.
Q. Discuss the importance of language and popular traditions in the creation of national identity.
Answer: Language and popular traditions are important factors in the formation of national identity. Language is used to communicate as well as to express cultural values, beliefs, and traditions. It helps to connect people within a community and reinforces their sense of belonging to a larger community.
Popular traditions, on the other hand, provide a common history and cultural heritage that helps to shape national identity. Customs, festivals, music, food, and other cultural practises are examples of traditions that are passed down from generation to generation. They serve as a reminder of a country’s distinct cultural heritage and provide citizens with a shared experience.
Language and popular traditions work together to foster a sense of unity and belonging among individuals within a nation. They serve as a common ground for people to identify with and aid in distinguishing one country from another.
Q. Who profits from jute cultivation according to the jute growers’ lament? Explain.
Answer: The Bengal jute growers believe that they are not profiting from the cultivation of jute. This is because the exports of gunny bags, which is made from raw jute, collapsed during the depression, causing the price of raw jute to crash. This resulted in lower prices for the jute growers, making it difficult for them to make a profit. To make matters worse, the colonial government refused to reduce revenue demands, which added to the financial difficulties of the jute growers. Furthermore, some jute growers had borrowed money in the hope of better times or to increase output, but with the lower prices, they fell deeper into debt. The jute growers therefore lamented that they were not profiting from jute cultivation.
Q. Briefly summarise the two lessons learnt by economists and politicians from the inter-war económic experience?
Answer: The two lessons economists and politicians learned from the inter-war economic experiences are:
i. Stable incomes and full employment can only be achieved through government intervention in the economy; and
ii. A country’s economic stability and full employment can only be maintained through government control of flows of goods, capital, and labour.
Extra/additional questions and answers/solutions
1. What is the purpose of people traveling in the history of human societies?
Answer: People in the history of human societies traveled for knowledge, opportunity, spiritual fulfilment, or to escape persecution.
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106. Why did MNCs begin to shift production operations to low-wage Asian countries?
Answer: From the late 1970s, MNCs began to shift production operations to low-wage Asian countries to compete in world markets.
107. Why did China become an attractive destination for foreign investment?
Answer: New economic policies in China and the collapse of the Soviet Union and Soviet-style communism in Eastern Europe brought China back into the fold of the world economy, and its low wages made it an attractive destination for investment by foreign MNCs competing in world markets.
Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs)
1. What was the most powerful weapon of the Spanish conquerors in America?
A. Conventional military
C. El Dorado
Answer: B. Germs
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38. What was the reason for the transformation of the world’s economic geography in the last two decades?
A. Low-cost structure
B. Low wages
C. Rapid economic transformation
D. Improved access to markets
Answer: C. Rapid economic transformation
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