Get here the notes/solutions/extras of NBSE Class 10 Social Science Chapter 9 Transport and Communication. However, the study materials should be used only for references and nothing more. The notes can be modified/changed according to needs.
The chapter discusses the importance of transport and communication networks in India and how advancements in these areas have connected the remotest corners of the country for inclusive development.
Roadways: India has one of the largest road networks in the world spanning about 2.3 million km. The roads can be categorized into:
National Highways: These roads connect states to each other and to the national capital Delhi. They constitute only 2% of road network but carry 40% of road traffic. They are constructed and maintained by the Central Public Works Department (CPWD). Example: Sher Shah Suri Marg between Delhi and Amritsar.
State Highways: Connect state capitals with district headquarters and important towns. Constructed and maintained by State PWD.
District Roads: Connect district headquarters with other locations in the district. Maintained by Zila Parishads.
Rural Roads: Link villages with towns. Under Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana, every village is to be connected by all-weather motorable roads.
Border Roads: Constructed along border areas by Border Roads Organisation. Strategically important.
Road transport is preferred for short and medium distances as it provides door-to-door connectivity. Useful for carrying passengers and small amounts of goods. However, inadequacy of roads, narrow bridges, lack of maintenance etc are some problems.
Railways: Indian Railways is the largest public sector undertaking in India with network spanning over 67,000 km. For administrative purposes divided into 17 zones. It is vital for long-distance movement of bulk freight and passengers. Metro trains within cities also gaining popularity. Different gauges exist based on distance between rails. Distribution of network influenced by physiography, economy and administration. Hilly terrains pose challenges. Problems include ticketless travel, theft and overcrowding.
Waterways: Cheapest means for carrying heavy and bulky goods over long distances. National Waterways declared along major river systems like Ganga, Brahmaputra. Total navigable inland waterways about 14,500 km including 5,685 km by mechanized boats. Major and minor ports along 7,500 km coastline handle 95% of EXIM trade volume. Advantages include fuel efficiency, low costs and reduced trans-shipment losses.
Pipelines: Used to transport petroleum products, natural gas etc from ports to refineries, fertilizer factories and power plants. Advantages include ability to cross difficult terrains, negligible maintenance costs and reduced pilferage.
Airways: Fastest means of transport essential for remote areas and disaster management. Air India and private airlines provide domestic and international services. Pawan Hans helicopters used in difficult areas like North-East, J&K, etc. Air travel is expensive, but special provisions have been made to connect remote areas.
Personal communication like letters is handled efficiently by nationwide postal services and international courier services. India has over 1.5 lakh post offices, with 89% in rural areas. Six-channel mail sorting was introduced in cities for quicker delivery.
Telecommunications revolutionised after privatisation in 1990s. Ranked 5th largest network globally. Competition reduced call rates substantially. 37,500 telephone exchanges across India provide STD/ISD facilities. Landline facing competition from rapidly growing mobile services.
Mass communication like television, radio, films, newspapers catalyzes mass awareness. Doordarshan is public broadcaster of terrestrial TV while private channels have proliferated after 1990s. Over 200 radio stations of All India Radio along with private FM channels entertain and inform people across languages. India is Asia’s hub for commercial films. A large variety of newspapers and periodicals published in about 100 languages.
Advanced transportation and communication networks have been critical for India’s inclusive development through exchange of information, ideas and resources. They have enabled trade, administration and helped integrate the socio-cultural diversity. Affordable modes of transport and information access can further bridge the rural-urban divide.
Textual questions and answers
Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs)
1. India has one of the largest networks of which of the following modes of transport.
(a) Roadways (b) Railways (c) Waterways (d) Pipelines
Answer: A. Roadways
2. Which of the following are the primary road systems of our country?
(a) National Highways (b) State highways (c) District roads (d) Border roads
Answer: A. National Highways
3. Which of the following was the first port to be developed soon after independence?
(a) Bombay (b) Calcutta (c) Paradip (d) Kandla
Answer: D. Kandla
4. An economical and environmentally friendly mode of transportation, best suited for carrying heavy and bulky goods at lower costs, is:
(a) Air Transport (b) Rail Transport (c) Water Transport (d) Road Transport
Answer: C. Water Transport
5. Imagine you are a transportation manager responsible for overseeing rail operations. Which of the following challenges directly impacts rail transport’s efficiency and revenue generation?
(a) Lack of passengers (b) Insufficient railway stations (c) Ticketless travellers and thefts (d) Overcrowded trains
Answer: C. Ticketless travellers and thefts
6. You’re an environmental advocate looking for a transportation solution that minimizes fuel consumption and has a positive impact on the environment. Which mode of transport aligns with your goals?
(a) Air transport (b) Roadways (c) Waterways (d) Railways
Answer: C. Waterways
7. Read the following statements – Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Choose one of the correct alternatives given below.
(a) Both the Assertion and Reason are true, and the Reason is the correct explanation of the Assertion. (b) Both the Assertion and Reason are true, but the Reason is not the correct explanation of the Assertion. (c) The Assertion is true, but the Reason is false. (d) The Assertion is false, but the Reason is true. (e) Both the Assertion and Reason are false.
Answer: A. Both the Assertion and Reason are true, and the Reason is the correct explanation of the Assertion.
Very Short Answer Questions
1. What are state highways?
Answer: These highways join state capitals with towns and the district headquarters and provide the link with the national highways.
2. What is the name of the highway that connects the four large metro cities?
Answer: Golden Quadrilateral Super High ways
3. Write two advantages of airways.
Answer: The two advantages of airways are:
- Airways provide the fastest means of transport.
- For inaccessible, remote, and hostile areas, airways are the best means of transport
Short Answer Questions
1. Name any four means of communication.
Answer: The four means of communication are television, radio, newspapers, and magazines.
2. What are national highways? Who constructs and maintains them?
Answer: National highways connect one state with another and are of national importance. These highways link extreme parts of the country. They are laid out and maintained by the Central Public Works Department (CPWD).
3. Give two advantages to waterways.
Answer: The two advantages of waterways are:
- Waterways are the cheapest means of transport.
- It is the best means of transport to carry bulky and heavy goods at lower costs.
Long Answer Questions
1. Mention four merits and four demerits of road transportation with reference to India.
Answer: The merits of road transportation in India are as follows:
- Road transport provides a link between railway stations, air, and sea ports, serving as feeders to other modes of transport.
- Roads can traverse regions of dissected and undulating relief and negotiate steep slopes, thus connecting mountains and deserts with other parts of the country.
- Roads can be constructed at a much lower cost than railways, making them cheap and easy both in construction and maintenance.
- They directly connect fields with markets, factories with farms, and provide door-to-door service, thereby reducing the cost of loading and unloading.
The demerits of road transportation include:
- Inadequate road networks to meet the needs of the people.
- National Highways, which were built long ago, are not as wide, and most of the old bridges and culverts are low and old.
- Almost half the roads are unmetalled, hence, their usage during the monsoon is limited.
- Many of these roads pass through congested cities, creating problems, and there is a lack of roadside amenities, making road travel cumbersome.
2. Give four reasons why the means of transport and communication are called the lifelines of a nation and its economy.
Answer: The means of transport and communication are called the lifelines of a nation and its economy for several reasons, including:
- They enable trade expansion from national to international levels, connecting the country globally despite its vast area, diversities, and socio-cultural pluralities.
- Modern transport and communication systems have made life easier, with more amenities and comforts readily available, enhancing both social and economic enrichment.
- They support the integration of various regions with the rest of the world, facilitating the movement of goods, services, and people across borders and within the country.
- The development of a fast and efficient network of transport and communication has significantly shrunk distances, making the world a global village and making distances seem immaterial.
3. Why is road transport more useful than rail transport in India? Give four reasons. [HOTS]
Answer: Road transport is more useful than rail transport in India for the following reasons:
- Road transport provides a link between railway stations, air, and sea ports. They are used as feeders for other modes of transport.
- Roads can traverse regions of dissected and undulating relief and negotiate steep slopes. Hence, such a system can connect mountains and deserts with other parts of the country.
- Roads can be constructed at a much lower cost than railways. They are cheap and easy, both in construction and maintenance.
- They directly connect fields with markets, factories with farms, and provide door-to-door service. Thus, the cost of loading and unloading is lower. They are best for transporting perishable goods over short or medium distances.
4. What is mass communication? What are the different means of mass communication?
Answer: Mass communication includes television, radio, newspapers, magazines, books, and even films. It is so named because it can communicate ideas, policies, and national issues directly to the masses. This helps create awareness among the people.
- In India, only the government-owned Doordarshan is allowed to broadcast terrestrial television signals. Doordarshan broadcasts many programmes, which range from educational to entertainment to sports.
- The All India Radio, which is also known as Akashwani, is a very forceful mass medium. It broadcasts programmes in national, regional, and local languages for people of all regions and all age groups.
- India publishes a large number of dailies and periodicals in different languages from various cities. Newspapers are published in about 100 languages and dialects.
- India is the hub of commercial films in Asia. It produces short films, video feature films, and video short films.
1. What is the total length of India’s road network?
A. 1.5 million km B. 2.0 million km C. 2.3 million km D. 3.0 million km
Answer: C. 2.3 million km
2. Who built roads during the Mughal period as an important activity?
A. Akbar B. Shah Jahan C. Aurangzeb D. Sher Shah Suri
Answer: A. Akbar
3. What is the route length of the Indian Railways network?
A. 60,000 km B. 65,000 km C. 67,000 km D. 70,000 km
Answer: C. 67,000 km
4. How many railway zones are there in India after the recent reorganisation?
A. 16 B. 17 C. 18 D. 20
Answer: B. 17
5. What is the percentage share of broad gauge routes in the Indian Railways network?
A. 80% B. 85% C. 90% D. 95%
Answer: B. 85%
58. How many radio stations does All India Radio have?
A. 100 B. 200 C. 300 D. 500
Answer: B. 200
59. Who is allowed to broadcast terrestrial TV signals in India?
A. Zee TV B. Star TV C. Doordarshan D. Sony TV
Answer: C. Doordarshan
60. How are telephone circles divided in India?
A. Along state boundaries B. Along regional boundaries C. Along rural-urban boundaries D. Random division
Answer: A. Along state boundaries
Extra questions and answers
1. When was the Grand Trunk Road built?
Answer: The Grand Trunk Road was built by Sher Shah Suri across the Indo-Gangetic plain, from Chittagong (Bangladesh) to Peshawar (Pakistan) during the Mughal period.
2. What are the three important domains that can be used to move goods and services?
Answer: The three important domains that can be used to move goods and services are – air, water and land.
3. What are the six main types of roads according to their importance?
Answer: The six main types of roads according to their importance are – Golden Quadrilateral Super Highways, National Highways, State Highways, District Roads, Other Roads like Rural roads and Border Roads.
4. What percentage of total road network is constituted by National Highways?
Answer: National Highways constitute 2 per cent of the total road network.
5. Which organization constructs and maintains the Border Roads?
74. Why is air transport preferred in inaccessible and remote areas, despite being the costliest mode of transport?
Answer: Air transport is preferred in inaccessible and remote areas because it provides the fastest means of transport and is also the most comfortable and prestigious mode of transportation. It is especially vital for inaccessible, remote, and hostile areas and during natural and man-made disasters where it plays a crucial role, making it the best option despite its cost.
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