SEBA Class 10 Geography (Social Science) notes

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Get the notes of SEBA class 10 geography (social science) notes of all the chapters by clicking on the link under each heading. However, these notes/answers should be treated only for references and can be modified/changed according to needs.

Chapter 1: Economic Geography – Subject Matter and Resource notes

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Economic Geography: Subject Matter and Resource (Introduction of SEBA Class 10 Geography/Social Science chapter 1): The subject Geography is broadly divided into two divisions – physical geography and human geography. Economic geography is one of the important branches of human geography. The natural environment of the earth’s surface is characteristically different due to differences in its geological and physiographic structure, including climate and soil. For instance, when some part of the earth’s surface is mountainous highland, its other parts may be characterized by fertile plain, oceanic coastal plains, and some places may again be climatically very cold or very hot. Due to the prevalence of such differences in the natural environment the relationship between man and environment is not found to be similar in every place, and its resultant human environment also becomes different in different parts of the earth’s surface. Hence, the areas with fertile soil have developed agriculture, coastal areas for fishing and transport trade and the areas rich in mineral resources are industrially advanced. On the other hand, the areas with luxuriant grasslands have livestock rearing. Actually, due to the prevalence of variation in the elements of the natural and man-made environments, the human’s way of life and its economic activities also do not remain the same everywhere. In view of such differences, if one place is agriculturally developed, another place may be developed in trade and commerce, or even rich in industrial or fish production activities. That is why all the places on the earth having dependent on one another continue to maintain a kind of interrelationship. Resources and all the phenomena relating to various activities of man are discussed in economic geography.

Chapter 2: Environment and Environmental Problems notes

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Environment and Environmental Problems (Introduction of SEBA Class 10 Geography/Social Science chapter 2): The environment as a theme has drawn the utmost attention of the people during the contemporary period. Although the term ‘environment’ has been in use for a long time, it has now acquired special importance. Presently, almost in all kinds of academic, administrative, commercial and political discussions, the issues relating to the environment are commonly referred. Currently, all kinds of media are seen putting more emphasis on environmental issues. That we should keep the environment healthy has become a goal and objective for all of us.

Necessary importance for environmental education has also been given in the school and college curricula. In a broad sense, environment denotes the condition around an organism or a community of organisms. Such a condition includes all necessary elements for survival. These elements are both biotic and abiotic. The biotic components include all plants and animals. Land, water, air and all other lifeless elements fall under the abiotic category. These biotic and abiotic elements through their interaction create a necessary condition or environment for life. In other words, each and every organism or community of organisms depends upon the conditions around them. Thus organisms are also constituents of their environment. Human beings are also an organism and they also depend on the environment around.

Chapter 3: Geography of the World notes

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Geography of the World (Introduction of SEBA Class 10 Geography/Social Science chapter 3): The earth, the only habitat of man, is vast. Its total surface area is 510 million square km. It may be mentioned that only about 29 per cent of the earth’s surface area, that is 149 million square kin is covered by land and the remaining 71 per cent, that is 361 million square km is covered with water. The land portion of the earth is constituted by the continents like Asia, Africa, Europe, North America, South America, Oceania and Antarctica. On the other hand, the huge water portion of the earth is covered with the Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Arctic and Southern oceans. It may be mentioned that among the continents Asia and among the oceans, the Pacific are the largest ones in the area. As per estimates of 2015, the population of the world is 730 crores or 7.3 billion. It is notable that the topographic character, climate, soil, plants, animals, etc. are different in different places on the earth. It is due to such variations of different elements of the natural environment the population distribution and man’s ways of living are not the same in different places on the earth. Even the socio-economic advancement of different places on the earth greatly depends on the prevailing characteristics of the natural environment. That is why the areas having favourable natural environments and rich in natural resources are generally economically advanced. On the other hand, many areas on the earth having unfavourable natural environments and devoid of necessary natural resources are economically lagging behind.

Chapter 4: Geography of Assam notes

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Geography of Assam (Introduction of SEBA Class 10 Geography/Social Science chapter 4): Assam covers 2.4 per cent area of India and has a 2.6 per cent population of the country (As per 2011 census). Literacy rate and sex ratio have increased in Assam during 2001-11. Again the percentage of the rural population has decreased while the percentage of the urban population has increased. There are 7 Class-I towns and 6 Class-II towns in Assam as per 2011 census data. Although the population growth in Assam depends on birth rate, death rate and migration, the impact of migration is very significant. Assam’s population increased more than two times during the four decades from 1901 to 1941. But, it had increased rapidly during the post Independence period from 1951 to 1971. However, the population decreased slowly during 1981-2011. Due to the uneven distribution of population in the state, population density also varies from region to region. In the Brahmaputra Valley population density is found to increase from its upper part to the middle part and then from the middle part to the lower part. Similarly, the Barak Valley has a high population density, and the hill zone covering Karbi Anglong and Dima Hasao district has a low density of population. According to data of the 2011 census, Kamrup (Metro) is the most densely populated district, while Dima Hasao district is the most sparsely populated district of the state. Different ethnic groups of people have been migrating to Assam since the past and as a result assemblage of various groups of people with their diverse languages, religions and cultures took place. Such variations and diversities are the special characteristics of Assam, and these have been immensely enriching the Assamese society and culture. As Assam is the gateway of North-East India, the development of the transport system of Assam is directly helpful for the economic development of the North-East. The transport systems of Assam include road, rail, water and air transport. All these transport systems suffer from a number of problems. The transport sector of Assam is not developed up to the mark. In the case of economic development of Assam, both the resources- natural and human are important and Assam is rich in these two types of resources. The major natural resources of Assam are the land, forest, mineral and water resources.

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