Get here the notes, questions, answers, textbook solutions, summary, additional/extras, and PDF of TBSE (Tripura Board) Class 10 madhyamik Social Science (Economics/Understanding Economic Development) Chapter “Development.” However, the provided notes should only be treated as references, and the students are encouraged to make changes to them as they feel appropriate.
The concept of progress and development is an ever-present idea in human society that encompasses the exploration of our wants and desires, including the ideals of an ideal nation, our priorities, and how we should exist with one another. The development process is multifaceted, requiring a grasp of history and politics since the present is shaped by the past. To achieve our aims, we must adhere to democratic processes.
People’s individual aspirations can clash with each other, resulting in disagreements. For example, a girl may yearn for the same freedoms and opportunities as her brother, which he may not appreciate. Similarly, industrialists might advocate for more dams to boost power supply, yet this could displace and upset people. In addition to seeking better financial compensation, people also want equity, freedom, protection, and respect. Discrimination is frowned upon, and other intangible factors, such as friendship, play a vital role in our wellbeing.
When selecting a job, many factors, such as work ambiance, education opportunities, job safety, and family amenities, are taken into account, aside from income. Development aims aren’t just focused on increasing revenue but also on other crucial issues, such as gender respect, a secure environment, and greater acceptance of women in the workplace. Therefore, development necessitates a balance of objectives that people desire.
The notion of national development varies from person to person since everyone has different objectives. It is critical to assess different concepts for national development while also determining which ideas are fair, important, and equitable. When considering the comparison between countries, several criteria can be used, with income being one of the most important. The income of a country is determined by the combined income of its inhabitants, but for inter-country comparisons, the average or per capita income is used.
A country with a per capita income of US$ 49,300 or above in 2019 is regarded as a high-income or wealthy country, while a country with a per capita income of US$ 2500 or less is considered a low-income nation. India falls into the low-middle-income category, with an annual per capita income of US$ 6700 in 2019. Developed countries, except for some Middle Eastern and other minor countries, are typically those with high-income.
The measurement of a nation’s or region’s progress cannot be solely based on the average income of its population. There are other significant factors to consider, such as safety, respect, impartial treatment, freedom, and access to essential services such as health and education. For example, Haryana’s per capita income is higher than Kerala’s, but Haryana has a higher infant mortality rate than Kerala, implying that income is insufficient to gauge development.
The cash in your wallet is insufficient to acquire everything necessary to live well, such as a pollution-free environment, unadulterated medicine, and protection from infectious diseases. Many of life’s necessities are best provided collectively, such as neighborhood security or education access for all children. In several regions, children, particularly girls, are denied their fundamental right to education, and consequently, they face numerous challenges.
Textual questions and answers
1. Development of a country can generally be determined by
(i) its per capita income
(ii) its average literacy level
(iii) health status of its people
(iv) all the above
Answer: (iv) all the above is correct.
2. Which of the following neighbouring countries has better performance in terms of human development than India?
(ii) Sri Lanka
Answer: (ii) Sri Lanka
3. Assume there are four families in a country. The average per capita income of these families is Rs 5000. If the income of three families is Rs 4000, Rs 7000 and Rs 3000 respectively, what is the income of the fourth family?
(i) Rs 7500
(ii) Rs 3000
(iii) Rs 2000
(iv) Rs 6000
Answer: (iv) Rs 6000
Let the income of the fourth family be x.
Then, the total income of all four families = 4000 + 7000 + 3000 + x = 14000 + x
The average per capita income of these families is given as Rs 5000.
Therefore, (4000 + 7000 + 3000 + x) / 4 = 5000
Simplifying this equation, we get: 14000 + x = 20000
=> x = 6000
Hence, the income of the fourth family is Rs 6000.
4. What is the main criterion used by the World Bank in classifying different countries? What are the limitations of this criterion, if any?
Answer: The main criterion used by the World Bank in classifying different countries is their income level, which is measured by Gross National Income (GNI) per capita. The World Bank classifies countries into four income groups: low income, lower-middle income, upper-middle income, and high income.
The limitations of this criterion are:
i. It only considers the economic aspect of development and does not take into account other important factors such as social, environmental, and political factors.
ii. GNI per capita does not reflect income distribution within a country, which can vary widely.
iii. GNI per capita is measured in US dollars, which can be affected by exchange rate fluctuations and may not accurately reflect the purchasing power of a country’s citizens.
5. In what respects is the criterion used by the UNDP for measuring development different from the one used by the World Bank?
Answer: The criterion used by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) for measuring development is the Human Development Index (HDI), which takes into account not only income but also other factors such as education and health. The HDI is a composite index that measures a country’s average achievements in three dimensions of human development: a long and healthy life, access to knowledge, and a decent standard of living. In contrast, the World Bank’s criterion for measuring development is based solely on income, as measured by Gross National Income (GNI) per capita.
6. Why do we use averages? Are there any limitations to their use? Illustrate with your own examples related to development.
Answer: We use averages because they provide a quick and easy way to compare different situations. Averages can help us to understand the general trend or pattern in a set of data. For example, average income can be used to compare the economic development of different countries.
However, there are limitations to the use of averages. One limitation is that averages can hide disparities or variations within a group. For example, if we only look at the average income of a country, we may not see that some people are extremely rich while others are extremely poor. This can be a problem when we are trying to understand the level of development in a country.
Another limitation is that averages can be affected by outliers or extreme values. For example, if we calculate the average income of a group of people that includes a billionaire, the average income will be much higher than the income of the majority of people in the group. This can distort our understanding of the situation.
In the context of development, the use of averages can be limited because it does not tell us how income or other indicators are distributed among people. For example, if a country has a high average income but most of the income is concentrated in the hands of a few people, this may not be a sign of true development. Therefore, it is important to look beyond averages and consider other factors such as income distribution, education, health, and other indicators of human development.
7. Kerala, with lower per capita income has a better human development ranking than Haryana. Hence, per capita income is not a useful criterion at all and should not be used to compare states. Do you agree? Discuss.
Answer: Yes, I agree that per capita income is not a useful criterion to compare states in terms of human development. The example of Kerala and Haryana clearly shows that a state with lower per capita income can have a better human development ranking than a state with higher per capita income. Kerala has a higher literacy rate, net attendance ratio, and lower infant mortality rate than Haryana, despite having a lower per capita income.
This suggests that there are other factors that contribute to human development besides income. For example, access to education, healthcare, and basic amenities like clean water and sanitation can have a significant impact on human development. These factors are not necessarily correlated with per capita income.
Therefore, it is important to use a multidimensional approach to measure human development that takes into account a range of indicators beyond just income. The Human Development Index (HDI) is one such measure that considers indicators such as life expectancy, education, and income to provide a more comprehensive picture of human development.
In conclusion, while per capita income can be a useful indicator of economic development, it should not be used as the sole criterion to compare states in terms of human development. A more holistic approach that considers a range of indicators is necessary to accurately assess the level of development in a state.
8. Find out the present sources of energy that are used by the people in India. What could be the other possibilities fifty years from now?
Answer: According to the latest data available, the primary sources of energy used in India are coal, crude oil, natural gas, and renewable energy sources such as hydroelectricity, wind power, and solar power. Coal is the largest contributor to India’s energy mix, accounting for around 44% of total energy consumption, followed by crude oil and natural gas.
In the future, it is likely that India will continue to rely on a mix of energy sources to meet its growing energy needs. However, there is a growing focus on renewable energy sources such as solar and wind power, as well as energy efficiency measures, to reduce India’s dependence on fossil fuels and mitigate the impact of climate change.
In the next fifty years, it is possible that India will see a significant shift towards renewable energy sources, as the cost of solar and wind power continues to decline and technology improves. Other possibilities for future energy sources in India could include nuclear power, biofuels, and hydrogen fuel cells. However, these technologies are still in the early stages of development and it remains to be seen how they will be adopted in India.
9. Why is the issue of sustainability important for development?
Answer: The issue of sustainability is important for development because it raises questions about the long-term viability of development processes. Development that is not sustainable can lead to the depletion of natural resources, environmental degradation, and social inequality. Therefore, it is important to consider the impact of development on the environment and society, and to ensure that development is sustainable in the long term.
10. “The Earth has enough resources to meet the needs of all but not enough to satisfy the greed of even one person”. How is this statement relevant to the discussion of development? Discuss.
Answer: The statement “The Earth has enough resources to meet the needs of all but not enough to satisfy the greed of even one person” highlights the issue of resource distribution and consumption. Development is often associated with economic growth and increased consumption, which can lead to the depletion of natural resources and environmental degradation. The statement suggests that the problem is not the availability of resources, but rather the way in which they are distributed and consumed. In the context of development, this means that there is a need to ensure that resources are used in a sustainable and equitable manner, so that everyone’s needs are met without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Therefore, the statement emphasizes the importance of sustainable development, which seeks to balance economic growth with social and environmental considerations. It also highlights the need for responsible consumption and production patterns, which can help to reduce the impact of development on the environment and ensure that resources are used in a fair and equitable manner.
11. List a few examples of environmental degradation that you may have observed around you.
Answer: A few examples of environmental degradation around me are:
Deforestation: The clearing of forests for agriculture, urbanization, and other purposes can lead to soil erosion, loss of biodiversity, and climate change.
Air pollution: The release of harmful gases and particles into the air from factories, vehicles, and other sources can cause respiratory problems, acid rain, and climate change.
Water pollution: The discharge of pollutants into rivers, lakes, and oceans can harm aquatic life and make water unsafe for human consumption.
Soil degradation: The loss of soil fertility due to erosion, overuse, and other factors can reduce crop yields and lead to desertification.
Climate change: The increase in global temperatures due to the release of greenhouse gases from human activities can cause sea level rise, extreme weather events, and other impacts on ecosystems and human societies.
12. For each of the items given in Table 1.6, find out which country is at the top and which is at the bottom.
Answer: The country at the top in terms of Gross National Income (GNI) per capita is Sri Lanka with a GNI of 12,707 (2011 PPP $), while the country at the bottom is Nepal with a GNI of 3,457 (2011 PPP $).
13. The following table shows the proportion of adults (aged 15-49 years) whose BMI is below normal (BMI <18.5 kg/m2) in India. It is based on a survey of various states for the year 2015-16. Look at the table and answer the following questions.
Source: National Family Health Survey-4, 2015-16, http://rchiips.org
i) Compare the nutritional level of people in Kerala and Madhya Pradesh.
Answer: The proportion of adults whose BMI is below normal in Kerala is 8.5% for males and 10% for females, while in Madhya Pradesh it is 28% for both males and females. This indicates that the nutritional level of people in Kerala is better than that of Madhya Pradesh.
ii) Can you guess why around one-fifth of people in the country are undernourished even though it is argued that there is enough food in the country? Describe in your own words.
Answer: One reason why around one-fifth of people in the country are undernourished despite there being enough food in the country is due to unequal distribution of food. The food may be available, but it may not be accessible or affordable to everyone. Poverty, lack of education, and inadequate infrastructure can also contribute to undernourishment. Additionally, food wastage and inefficient food distribution systems can also lead to food scarcity in certain areas.
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