Get here the notes, questions, answers, textbook solutions, summary, additional/extras, and PDF of TBSE (Tripura Board) Class 10 (madhyamik) Social Science (Geography/Contemporary India II) Chapter “Lifelines of National Economy.” However, the provided notes should only be treated as references, and the students are encouraged to make changes to them as they feel appropriate.
Transportation plays a vital role in meeting the needs of people, as it allows goods and services to be moved from their supply locations to demand locations. Traders facilitate this process, making products accessible to consumers by transportation. Efficient means of transport are prerequisites for fast development, and the movement of goods and services can occur over three important domains: land, water, and air.
Transportation has expanded widely and has converted the world into a large village with the help of an equally developed communication system. Today, India is well-linked with the rest of the world, thanks to railways, airways, waterways, newspapers, radio, television, cinema, and the internet, which have contributed to its socio-economic progress in many ways. Local and international trade has added vitality to its economy, enriching people’s lives and substantially improving the amenities and facilities for their comforts.
The development in science and technology has expanded the area of influence of trade and transport economy. Therefore, a dense and efficient network of transport and communication is a prerequisite for local, national, and global trade today.
India has a large road network of about 54.7 lakh km, which is one of the largest in the world. India has given precedence to roadways over railways, as roads can be constructed and maintained easily. Road transport is becoming more important in India due to reasons such as lower construction costs, ability to traverse mountains, and door-to-door service. Roadways are classified into six classes in India. The government has launched a major road development project linking the mega cities of India with the Golden Quadrilateral Super Highways, which are six-lane superhighways.
The National Highways are the primary road systems and connect extreme parts of the country. Rural roads linking rural areas and villages with towns are classified under other roads. Railways are the principal mode of transportation for freight and passengers in India. They also bind the economic life of the country and accelerate the development of industry and agriculture. Indian Railways has a vast network of 7,137 stations, with a fleet of 11,122 locomotives, 54,506 passenger service vehicles, 6,899 other coach vehicles, and 2,51,256 wagons.
India has a diverse transportation network comprising railways, pipelines, waterways, and ports. The Indian Railways, organized into 16 zones, has a widespread network, mostly influenced by physiographic, economic, and administrative factors. The northern plains, with vast level land, high population density, and rich agricultural resources, provided favorable conditions for railway growth. On the other hand, hilly terrains of the peninsular region and the Himalayan mountainous regions have low populations, high relief, and a lack of economic opportunities, making it difficult to construct railways. Similarly, laying railway lines on the sandy plain of western Rajasthan, swamps of Gujarat, forested tracks of Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Odisha, and Jharkhand were challenging.
Pipelines are a new addition to India’s transportation network, primarily used for transporting crude oil, petroleum products, and natural gas. The three critical pipeline transportation networks in India include oil fields in Upper Assam to Kanpur via Barauni, from Salaya in Gujarat to Jalandhar in Punjab, and gas pipelines from Hazira in Gujarat to Jagdishpur in Uttar Pradesh. Pipelines have high initial costs, but their running costs are minimal, ruling out trans-shipment losses or delays.
Waterways are a cheap and fuel-efficient mode of transportation suitable for carrying heavy and bulky goods. India has 14,500 km of inland navigation waterways, out of which only 5,685 km are navigable by mechanized vessels. The country’s trade with foreign countries is carried out from the ports located along the coast. India’s 12 major and 200 notified non-major ports handle 95% of its foreign trade. Kandla was the first port developed soon after independence to ease the volume of trade on the Mumbai port, in the wake of the loss of Karachi port to Pakistan after partition. The port serves as a convenient handling point for exports and imports of highly productive granaries and industrial belts.
Despite the network’s wide availability, the Indian railway system faces issues such as passengers traveling without tickets, theft and damage to railway property, and unnecessary pulling of chains, causing delays. However, with recent developments, the Konkan railway has facilitated the movement of passengers and goods along India’s west coast.
Air travel in India has become an essential and convenient mode of transportation, covering diverse terrains, including inaccessible areas and difficult terrains like those found in the north-eastern states. Air transport was nationalized in India in 1953, and various operators such as Indian Airlines, Alliance Air, private scheduled airlines, non-scheduled operators, and Air India provide domestic and international air services. While air travel is not easily accessible to common people, special provisions have been made in the north-eastern states to extend services to them.
India’s communication network is one of the largest in Asia, including mass communication channels such as television, radio, newspapers, magazines, and films. India also has one of the largest telecom networks in Asia, and over two-thirds of Indian villages have been covered with Subscriber Trunk Dialling (STD) telephone facilities. The government has extended 24-hour STD facility to every village in the country, and there is a uniform rate of STD facilities across India. Mass communication channels play a vital role in providing entertainment and creating awareness among people about various national programmes and policies. India publishes a large number of newspapers and periodicals in approximately 100 languages and dialects. India is the largest producer of feature films globally, with the Central Board of Film Certification certifying both Indian and foreign films.
India’s economic prosperity is dependent on international trade, which takes place through sea, air, and land routes. Advancement in international trade is a crucial indicator of a country’s economic prosperity, and India has trade relations with all major trading blocks and geographical regions of the world. India’s export commodities include agriculture and allied products, base metals, gems and jewellery, chemicals and related products, while imported commodities include petroleum crude and products, electronic goods, pearls and precious stones, and machinery. The balance of trade is the difference between a country’s exports and imports. When the value of exports exceeds the value of imports, it is called a favorable balance of trade, and an unfavorable balance of trade occurs when the value of imports exceeds the value of exports.
Textual questions and answers
1. Multiple choice questions.
(i) Which two of the following extreme locations are connected by the eastwest corridor?
(a) Mumbai and Nagpur
(b) Silchar and Porbandar
(c) Mumbai and Kolkata
(d) Nagpur and Siligudi
Answer: (c) Mumbai and Kolkata
(ii) Which mode of transportation reduces trans-shipment losses and delays?
Answer: (c) Pipeline
(iii) Which one of the following states is not connected with the H.V.J. pipeline?
(a) Madhya Pradesh
(d) Uttar Pradesh
Answer: (b) Maharashtra
(iv) Which one of the following ports is the deepest land-locked and well protected port along the east coast?
Answer: (d) Vishakhapatnam
(v) Which one of the following is the most important mode of transportation in India?
Answer: (c) Roadways
(vi) Which one of the following terms is used to describe trade between two or more countries?
(a) Internal trade
(b) International trade
(c) External trade
(d) Local trade
Answer: (b) International trade
2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words.
(i) State any three merits of roadways.
Answer: the three main merits of roadways are:
(a) lower construction costs compared to railway lines;
(b) ability to traverse more dissected and undulating topography; and
(c) economical in transportation of few persons and relatively smaller amount of goods over short distances.
(ii) Where and why is rail transport the most convenient means of transportation?
Answer: Rail transport is the most convenient means of transportation in areas with dense population and flat terrain, such as the Indo-Gangetic plain, due to its high speed, large capacity, and relatively low cost.
(iii) What is the significance of the border roads?
Answer: The significance of the border roads is that they provide access to remote areas and facilitate the movement of people and goods across borders, thus playing an important role in the area of influence of trade and transport economy.
(iv) What is meant by trade? What is the difference between international and local trade?
Answer: Trade is the exchange of goods and services between two or more parties. International trade is the exchange of goods and services between two or more countries, while local trade is the exchange of goods and services within a single country.
3. Answer the following questions in about 120 words.
(i) Why are the means of transportation and communication called the lifelines of a nation and its economy?
Answer: Transportation and communication are essential for the growth and development of a nation and its economy. They enable the movement of goods and services from one place to another, both within the nation and to other countries. This facilitates trade, which is an important factor in the economic growth of a nation. In addition, efficient transport and communication systems enable people to access information quickly and easily, which is essential for the development of a nation. For example, with the help of the internet, people can access news, educational resources, and other information from all over the world. This helps to create a more informed and connected society, which is essential for the growth and development of a nation.
(ii) Write a note on the changing nature of international trade in the last fifteen years.
Answer: In the last fifteen years, international trade has undergone a dramatic transformation. The exchange of commodities and goods has been replaced by the exchange of information and knowledge. The internet has made it easier for businesses to communicate and collaborate with each other, leading to increased global trade. In addition, the emergence of e-commerce has enabled businesses to access new markets and customers, allowing them to expand their operations and increase their profits. Furthermore, the development of new technologies such as blockchain and artificial intelligence has enabled businesses to automate their processes, making international trade more efficient and cost-effective. These developments have had a profound impact on the global economy, and have enabled businesses to become more competitive in the global market.
1. Northern terminal of the North-south corridor.
Answer: Sher Shah Suri Marga
2. The name of National Highway No.2.
Answer: Grand Trunk Road
3. The headquarter of the southern railway zone.
4. The rail gauge with a track width of 1.676 m.
Answer: Meter Gauge
5. The southern terminal of the National Highway No. 7.
6. A Riverine Port.
7. Busiest railway junction in Northern India.
Answer: Delhi Junction
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