Get here the notes/solutions/extras of NBSE Class 10 Social Science Chapter 8 Manufacturing Industries. However, the study materials should be used only for references and nothing more. The notes can be modified/changed according to needs.
Manufacturing plays a very important role in the economic development of a country. Manufacturing refers to the process of producing goods in large quantities using machines. Manufacturing industries use raw materials from the primary sector like agriculture and mining to produce finished products.
There are different types of manufacturing industries based on the raw materials used, size of investment, ownership, etc. Agro-based industries like food processing, cotton textile, jute, sugar use agricultural products as raw materials. Mineral-based industries like steel, cement, aluminum use minerals and metals as raw materials.
The textile industry is one of the oldest and most important industries in India. The cotton textile industry provides employment to millions and contributes significantly to industrial production and exports. The major cotton textile centers are in Maharashtra, Gujarat, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, and Madhya Pradesh. India is also a leading producer of jute products, with most jute mills located in West Bengal. The sugar industry is the second largest agro-based industry, with over 600 sugar mills spread across states like Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra and Bihar.
The iron and steel industry is considered the backbone of industrial development as it provides raw materials to other industries. India is the 4th largest producer of crude steel in the world. The major integrated steel plants are located in mineral-rich areas like Jamshedpur, Burnpur, Bhilai, Rourkela, Durgapur, among others. Aluminium smelting and cement manufacturing are other key mineral-based industries.
The chemical industry produces a wide range of products from fertilizers to plastics. The IT and electronics industry has seen rapid growth, generating employment and boosting exports. Bengaluru is known as the Silicon Valley of India for its prominent role in this sector.
The location of industries depends on several factors like availability of raw materials, labour, capital, power, market, etc. Industries tend to cluster around urban areas to benefit from the facilities and services available there, resulting in industrial agglomerations.
While manufacturing boosts economic growth, it also leads to environmental degradation through air, water, land and noise pollution. Sustainable development requires a balance between industrial growth and environmental protection.
Measures to reduce industrial pollution include waste treatment, rainwater harvesting, use of cleaner fuels, noise control equipment, among others. Companies like NTPC have adopted various eco-friendly practices.
Textual questions and answers
Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs)
1. Manufacturing is the process of
(a) producing goods in large quantity (b) producing goods by hands (c) producing goods without adding value (d) none of the above
Answer: (a) producing goods in large quantity
2. Which of the following is not a factor of production?
(a) Land (b) Raw material (c) Capital (d) Infrastructure
Answer: (d) Infrastructure
3. Oil India Limited (OIL) belongs to which of the following types of industries.
(a) Public sector (b) Private sector (c) Joint sector (d) Cooperative sector
Answer: (c) Joint sector
4. How do the geographical distribution and concentration of sugar mills address the challenges posed by the bulky nature of raw materials?
(a) By relocating mills to regions with lower demand for sugar products. (b) By placing mills closer to sugarcane cultivation areas to reduce transportation costs. (c) By transporting raw materials in smaller quantities to reduce their bulkiness. (d) By relying solely on imported sugarcane to meet the demand.
Answer: (b) By placing mills closer to sugarcane cultivation areas to reduce transportation costs.
5. Read the following statements – Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Choose one of the correct alternatives given below.
Assertion (A): Bengaluru has emerged as the electronic capital of India due to its significant role in the electronics industry.
Reason (R): The electronics industry primarily focuses on producing agricultural equipment and machinery.
(a) Both the Assertion and Reason are true, and the Reason is a correct explanation of the Assertion. (b) Both the Assertion and Reason are true, but the Reason is NOT a correct explanation of the Assertion. (c) The Assertion is true, but the Reason is false. (d) The Assertion is false, but the Reason is true.
Answer: (c) The Assertion is true, but the Reason is false.
Very Short Answer Questions
1. What is manufacturing?
Answer: Manufacturing is the process of producing goods in large quantities by using machines.
2. What are tertiary activities?
Answer: All those activities that link producers and consumers are called tertiary activities, such as banks, transport, etc.
3. Which city is called the ‘Silicon Valley of India’?
Answer: Bengaluru has emerged as the electronic capital of India and is also known as the ‘Silicon Valley’ of India.
Short Answer Questions
1. ‘Agriculture and industry move hand-in-hand.’ Elucidate.
Answer: Since India has an agrarian economy, agro based industries have played an important role in India’s development. India is one of the largest producers of milk, sugarcane, and tea, as well as rice, wheat, fruits, and vegetables. These provide raw materials for growth of Agro based industries Agriculture and industry go hand in hand and complement each other. Both are dependent on each other for their progress and survival.
2. Why is South India and western India more favourable for setting up sugarcane mills?
Answer: The reasons for the shift of sugar mills to the southern and western states of India, especially Maharashtra, are the cooler climate in those states which lengthens the crushing season and even increases the sucrose content of the cane. Another important factor is the success of cooperatives in these western and southern states of India.
3. What are the prime factors in location of aluminium smelting industries?
Answer: Bauxite is the raw material used in smelters for extracting alumina and later aluminium. Location of the industry is influenced by the availability of bauxite at minimum cost and inexpensive and assured supply of electricity.
Long Answer Questions
1. Differentiate between agro-based industries and mineral-based industries. Give examples.
Answer: Agro-based industries are those industries that process agricultural products, such as cotton, jute, sugarcane, etc. Examples of agro-based industries include cotton textile industry, jute textile industry, sugar industry, edible oil industry, etc.
On the other hand, mineral-based industries use minerals and metals as their raw materials, for example, iron and steel, aluminium smelting, copper smelting, cement, fertiliser, etc. The iron and steel industry, aluminium smelting industry, chemical industry, fertiliser industry, and cement industry are examples of mineral-based industries.
2. When was the National Jute Policy introduced? What are its main objectives?
Answer: The National Jute Policy was framed in 2005. Its main objectives were to increase productivity, improve quality, enhance yield/production and also ensure supportive prices to the jute farmers. Today, the Indian jute industry is facing stiff competition from synthetic substitutes which are easily available at cheaper rates. It also faces tough competition from jute products from Bangladesh, Brazil, Philippines, Egypt and Thailand.
3. Why is the development of manufacturing industries considered a measure for assessing the economic strength of a country?
Answer: The development of manufacturing industries is considered a measure for assessing the economic strength of a country for the following reasons: Manufacturing not only aids in modernising agriculture, which is crucial for creating new economic opportunities, but also provides employment in the secondary and tertiary sectors and reduces dependence on agriculture. Industrialisation is a powerful method of conquering poverty and providing employment. The development and competitiveness of manufacturing industries also make the production process very efficient and smooth. Moreover, the strength of a country lies in increasing and diversifying its manufacturing industries at the best and steady pace and transforming its raw materials into a diverse variety of finished goods of higher value.
4. Classify industries on the basis of: (i) Capital investment (ii) Ownership
Answer: (i) Capital investment:
- Large Scale: Investment in such an industry is more than one crore. Labour employed is large.
- Small Scale: Investment in such an industry is less than one crore. Labour employed is less.
- Public Sector: Owned and operated by government agencies such as BHEL, SAIL, etc.
- Private Sector: Owned and operated by individuals or a group of individuals, such as Bajaj Auto Ltd., Dabur Industries, Tisco, etc.
- Joint Sector: Run jointly by the state and individual/group of individuals, such as Oil India Ltd. (OIL).
- Cooperative Sector: Owned and operated by the producers or suppliers of raw materials, workers, or both. Resources are pooled and profits and losses are shared, e.g., coir industry in Kerala, and the sugar industry in Maharashtra.
5. How do industries pollute the environment?
Answer: Industries pollute the environment in various ways, leading to different types of pollution.
- Air pollution is caused by the presence of a high proportion of gases that are undesirable, e.g., sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide. Factories, brick kilns, refineries, and smelting plants that do not follow pollution norms cause air pollution.
- Water pollution occurs when organic and inorganic effluents are discharged into water bodies by paper, pulp, petroleum refineries, tanneries, textile and dyeing, fertilisers, electroplating industries.
- Land pollution is caused by dumping of wastes from nuclear power plants, glass plants, industrial effluents, garbage, salts, etc.
- Thermal pollution happens when hot water from thermal plants and factories is drained into rivers and ponds before cooling, affecting aquatic life.
- Noise pollution is caused during industrial and construction activities due to the running of machinery and factory equipment, the use of saws and pneumatic drills, and the working of generators.
1. What is the central dynamic force of development in general, and economic development in particular?
A. Agriculture B. Service sector C. Manufacturing sector D. Primary sector
Answer: C. Manufacturing sector
2. What is the oldest and diversified industry in both inorganic and organic sectors in India?
A. Iron and steel industry B. Textile industry C. Chemical industry D. Information technology industry
Answer: C. Chemical industry
3. Which industry is considered to be the basic industry as all other industries depend on it for machinery?
A. Cement industry B. Iron and steel industry C. Aluminium industry D. Chemical industry
Answer: B. Iron and steel industry
55. Which of the following is NOT a challenge faced by the textile industry in India?
A. Inability to use high-quality yarn produced in the country B. Competition from imported textiles C. Availability of skilled labor D. Outdated weaving and knitting units
Answer: C. Availability of skilled labor
Extra questions and answers
1. What is manufacturing?
Answer: Manufacturing is the process of producing goods in large quantities by using machines.
2. What is an agro-based industry?
Answer: Agro-based industries are those industries that process agricultural products, such as cotton, jute, sugarcane, etc.
3. What are mineral-based industries?
Answer: Mineral-based industries are those industries that use minerals and metals as their raw materials, for example, iron and steel, aluminium smelting, etc.
4. Mention the factors that play an important role in the location of industries.
Answer: Factors like availability of raw material, labour, capital, power, market, etc. play an important role in the location of industries.
5. How is the cotton textile industry important for India?
Answer: The cotton textile industry is one of the oldest industries of India. It contributes almost 14 per cent to industrial production, generates employment for almost 35 million people directly, contributes to almost 24.6 per cent of the foreign exchange earning, and its contribution towards GDP is 4 per cent.
6. What are the objectives of the National Jute Policy framed in 2005?
Answer: The main objectives of the National Jute Policy framed in 2005 were to increase productivity, improve quality, enhance yield/production and also ensure supportive prices to the jute farmers.
7. Describe the location and importance of the sugar industry in India.
Answer: Sugar is India’s second largest agro-producing industry. It has been estimated that 34 million Indian farmers and their families are dependent on sugar cultivation. In 2010-2011, there were around 662 sugar mills in the country spread over many states – Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Punjab, Haryana and Madhya Pradesh. Uttar Pradesh and Bihar can boast of more than 60 per cent of the mills being located there. The industry uses raw material which is heavy and bulky to haul. There is another drawback for this industry – the sucrose content of sugarcane gets depleted when transported over a long distance. Therefore, sugar industries need to be located near sugarcane producing areas.
42. Give examples of industrially developed urban centres in India.
Answer: Some examples of industrially developed urban centres in India are Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai which were strategically located from the point of view of overseas trade, even before independence. Over the years these cities have developed as important urban centres with a vast agricultural rural hinterland surrounding them.
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